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Dioctophyme Renale


Presentation

  • In the present study a prevalence of 50% of third-stage larvae of D. renale was recorded in 60 specimens of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present report contributes to the importance of observing during cavity surgery the anatomy of the viscera and the presence of in the direction of clinical surgeon to anticipate the emergence of any kind of clinical symptoms caused by this nematode[scielo.org.co]
  • There is a low incidence of human infection, but infestation of human kidneys has been reported, typically due to the consumption of infected mollusks Most cases of human infection present with symptoms including (but not limited to) severe pain in the[dovemed.com]
  • Individuals with Dioctophyme renale infection typically present with unspecific symptoms including hematuria (blood in urine), nephritis, loin pain, renal enlargement, and/or renal colic (intermittent pain in the kidney area), which may result from the[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Back to top Ø Eggs in urine (if adults are present in the kidney) Ø Adults recovered during laparotomy or hysterectomy (usually when in the abdominal cavity) or at necropsy Ø Radiography Back to top Surgical removal of the parasite.[web.stanford.edu]
Fishing
  • The majority of D. renale infections have resulted from undercooked or raw freshwater fish consumption.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • If the worm is eaten by a frog or fish the third stage-larva will encyst in the predator (paratenic host).[web.stanford.edu]
  • Since the parasite transmission usually occurs through consumption of fish and other accidental food items, investigation of the worm amongst fish-eating animals in the areas with potential circulation of the helminth life cycle, has been regarded as[semanticscholar.org]
  • Both frogs and fish are paratenic hosts and carnivores become infected when they eat these. ( B22 .32.w15) Infectious Agent(s) -- Non-infectious Agent(s) -- Physical Agent(s) -- General Description There is a single report of the kidney worm Dioctophyma[web.archive.org]
  • There are no previous records of reptiles being part of the life cycle of D. renale, although fish and amphibians normally act as paratenic hosts. This is the first report of third-stage D. renale larvae in the freshwater turtle, T. dorbigni.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pain
  • Individuals with Dioctophyme renale infection typically present with unspecific symptoms including hematuria (blood in urine), nephritis, loin pain, renal enlargement, and/or renal colic (intermittent pain in the kidney area), which may result from the[en.wikipedia.org]
  • There is a low incidence of human infection, but infestation of human kidneys has been reported, typically due to the consumption of infected mollusks Most cases of human infection present with symptoms including (but not limited to) severe pain in the[dovemed.com]
  • , paresis of the hindquarters Ø Sudden weight loss (up to 1/2), anorexia, vomiting Ø Hematuria, polydipsia, uremia Ø Severe pain and irritation resulting from adults attempting to migrate through the ureters.[web.stanford.edu]
  • A Eustrongylides infection causes severe abdominal pain, often in the right lower quadrant and seldom lasting beyond 24 hours. Most patients are afebrile. Some patients vomit.[isradiology.org]
  • Thus, in clinical practice, when patients present with unexplained loin pain, hematuria and kidney damage, dioctophymiasis should be considered.[parasite-journal.org]
Weight Loss
  • loss, and irritation of the ureter due to the movement and destruction of the kidneys by the parasite Dioctophymiasis can result in the eventual destruction of renal functional tissue, leaving only the remains of the kidney capsule filled with fluid[dovemed.com]
  • loss (up to 1/2), anorexia, vomiting Ø Hematuria, polydipsia, uremia Ø Severe pain and irritation resulting from adults attempting to migrate through the ureters.[web.stanford.edu]
  • Background When painless haematuria is associated with a mass in the flank, severe anaemia and significant weight loss, renal cell carcinoma is highly suspected.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There can also be associated vomiting, weight loss, and pernicious anemia , since the parasite absorbs vitamin B 12 from the host (0.5%) Species other than D. latum probably constitute transitory intestinal infections in humans, usually lasting for only[web.archive.org]
  • Further clinical signs, including weight loss, irritability, anemia, weakness, and increased frequency of urination may or may not be present.[k-state.edu]
Severe Pain
  • There is a low incidence of human infection, but infestation of human kidneys has been reported, typically due to the consumption of infected mollusks Most cases of human infection present with symptoms including (but not limited to) severe pain in the[dovemed.com]
  • pain and irritation resulting from adults attempting to migrate through the ureters.[web.stanford.edu]
  • Rarely, the adults may attempt to migrate through the ureters causing severe pain and irritation Eustrongylides spp.[k-state.edu]
Physician
  • Nephrectomy is generally considered extreme for human cases.A physician reportedly used Ivermectin to treat a patient, who was effectively cured.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 62(10), 70–73. [Google Scholar] Wang AH. 2008. A case report of human infection with Dioctophyma renale. Journal of Pathogen Biology, 3(1), 4. (in Chinese). [Google Scholar] Yang BH. 1985.[parasite-journal.org]
Vomiting
  • […] worms in body cavity Ø Unaffected kidney has compensatory hypertrophy Ø Frequently no clinical signs because of compensation, but possibly : Ø Severe abdominal and lumbar pain, paresis of the hindquarters Ø Sudden weight loss (up to 1/2), anorexia, vomiting[web.stanford.edu]
  • Some patients vomit. Unless the worm is identified in the urine, accurate diagnosis is difficult. Three cases have been reported in which the worm was subcutaneous.[isradiology.org]
  • Although many carriers are asymptomatic, overt clinical manifestations of diphyllobothriasis can include diarrhea, epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting. There are no reports of anaemia associated with any of the northern species except D. latum.[web.archive.org]
  • In some areas of the world, domestic dogs, marten, coyote, and golden jackals may also have high levels of infection Experimental infection often results in violent vomition due to worms invading the stomach wall and heavy infections (i.e. a couple dozen[k-state.edu]
Colic
  • Individuals with Dioctophyme renale infection typically present with unspecific symptoms including hematuria (blood in urine), nephritis, loin pain, renal enlargement, and/or renal colic (intermittent pain in the kidney area), which may result from the[en.wikipedia.org]
  • They cause gradual destruction of the kidney, showing clinically as renal colic and hematuria. Eustrongylides are parasites of fish-eating birds. The life cycle is very similar to that of D. renal e.[isradiology.org]
Polydipsia
  • Ø Unaffected kidney has compensatory hypertrophy Ø Frequently no clinical signs because of compensation, but possibly : Ø Severe abdominal and lumbar pain, paresis of the hindquarters Ø Sudden weight loss (up to 1/2), anorexia, vomiting Ø Hematuria, polydipsia[web.stanford.edu]
Severe Abdominal Pain
  • A Eustrongylides infection causes severe abdominal pain, often in the right lower quadrant and seldom lasting beyond 24 hours. Most patients are afebrile. Some patients vomit.[isradiology.org]
Low Back Pain
  • Clinical Characteristics Renal colic and low back pain are the usual presenting symptoms, accompanied by hematuria and pyuria. An adult worm may be recognized in the urine. Appendicitis is often the clinical diagnosis.[isradiology.org]
Back Pain
  • Clinical Characteristics Renal colic and low back pain are the usual presenting symptoms, accompanied by hematuria and pyuria. An adult worm may be recognized in the urine. Appendicitis is often the clinical diagnosis.[isradiology.org]
Subcutaneous Nodule
  • Abstract We describe a nematode larva in a subcutaneous nodule excised from a 44-year-old Chinese male who had been living in Japan for 15 years. Morphological features suggested that the worm was a dioctophimatid nematode.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In these cases worms were found in the kidneys and larvae were found in subcutaneous nodules. These cases are of unknown etiology, but are thought to have been caused by the consumption of raw fish.[web.stanford.edu]
  • There are about 20 authenticated human infections in which the worms have been identified in subcutaneous nodules, usually in the patient's chest or abdominal wall. The adults live in the renal pelvis and are released in the urine.[isradiology.org]
  • There are also a few more recent reports of L3 larvae being found in migratory, subcutaneous nodules.[cdc.gov]
  • The first genetically confirmed case of Dioctophyme renal e (Nematoda: Dioctophymatida) in a patient with a subcutaneous nodule. Parasitology International, 63(1), 143–147.[parasite-journal.org]
Larva Migrans
  • KEYWORDS: Adenophorea; Dermal infection; Dioctophymatid nematode; Dioctophyme renale; Larva migrans; Molecular diagnosis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • migrans Necator americanus Necatoriasis Angiostrongylus cantonensis Angiostrongyliasis Metastrongylus Metastrongylosis Ascaridida Ascaris lumbricoides Ascariasis Anisakis Anisakiasis Toxocara canis / T. cati Visceral larva migrans / Toxocariasis Baylisascaris[en.wikipedia.org]
Hematuria
  • Urinalysis will likely show hematuria blood tests may reveal eosinophilia. Likely because of the rarity of human cases, there is no standard treatment for D. renale infection in humans.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • They cause gradual destruction of the kidney, showing clinically as renal colic and hematuria. Eustrongylides are parasites of fish-eating birds. The life cycle is very similar to that of D. renal e.[isradiology.org]
  • […] body cavity Ø Unaffected kidney has compensatory hypertrophy Ø Frequently no clinical signs because of compensation, but possibly : Ø Severe abdominal and lumbar pain, paresis of the hindquarters Ø Sudden weight loss (up to 1/2), anorexia, vomiting Ø Hematuria[web.stanford.edu]
  • Thus, in clinical practice, when patients present with unexplained loin pain, hematuria and kidney damage, dioctophymiasis should be considered.[parasite-journal.org]
  • The main clinical manifestations of human dioctophymiasis were loin pain (59.5%) and hematuria (59.5%). All the cases were diagnosed based on the morphological characteristics of eggs or adults in urine or tissue sections.[doi.org]
Uremia
  • […] kidney has compensatory hypertrophy Ø Frequently no clinical signs because of compensation, but possibly : Ø Severe abdominal and lumbar pain, paresis of the hindquarters Ø Sudden weight loss (up to 1/2), anorexia, vomiting Ø Hematuria, polydipsia, uremia[web.stanford.edu]
Irritability
  • […] human infection, but infestation of human kidneys has been reported, typically due to the consumption of infected mollusks Most cases of human infection present with symptoms including (but not limited to) severe pain in the abdomen, weight loss, and irritation[dovemed.com]
  • […] hypertrophy Ø Frequently no clinical signs because of compensation, but possibly : Ø Severe abdominal and lumbar pain, paresis of the hindquarters Ø Sudden weight loss (up to 1/2), anorexia, vomiting Ø Hematuria, polydipsia, uremia Ø Severe pain and irritation[web.stanford.edu]
  • Rarely, the adults may attempt to migrate through the ureters causing severe pain and irritation Eustrongylides spp.[k-state.edu]
  • This is theoretically due to chronic irritation causing metaplastic changes, dysplasia and carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Confusion
  • Back to top There has been some confusion about the history of discovery of D. renale but formal research investigating the life cycle of this parasite was started as early as 1782.[web.stanford.edu]
  • There has been some confusion about the life history of D. renale but research by Karmanova (1959, 1960) and Mace (1974) indicates that only one intermediate host-an oligochaete (earthworms and related aquatic forms) -- is required to complete the life[web.archive.org]
Paresis
  • […] destroyed, capsule distended, calcification occurs Ø Adhesions, peritonitis from worms in body cavity Ø Unaffected kidney has compensatory hypertrophy Ø Frequently no clinical signs because of compensation, but possibly : Ø Severe abdominal and lumbar pain, paresis[web.stanford.edu]

Workup

Taenia Solium
  • Halipegus eccentricus 331 Some Representative Life Cycles of Digenetic Trematodes 333 Morphological Types of Cestodes 335 Archigetes sieboldi 339 Order Pseudophyllidea 340 Glaridacris catostomi 341 Diphytlobothrium latum 343 Proteocephalus ambloplitis 347 Taenia[books.google.es]
  • The egg and proglottids (segments) are easy to be distinguished from segments from other human tapeworms, including Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) or Taenia solium.[web.archive.org]
Dirofilaria Immitis
  • immitis 491 Foleyella brachyoptera 495 Trichuris oins 499 Capillaria annulata 501 Capillaria hepatica 505 Capillaria plica 509 Trichinella spiralis 511 Dioctophyma renale 515 Summary of Direct Life Cycles of Some Nematodes 518 Summary of Indirect Life[books.google.es]
Ancylostoma Caninum
  • caninum and A braziliensis 411 Uncinaria lucasi 415 Oesophagostomum columbianum 419 Stephanurus dentatus 421 Strongylus edentatus S equinus and 423 vulgaris 425 Syngamus trachea 429 Haemonchus contortus Ostertagia circum cincta Trichostrongylus colubriformis[books.google.es]

Treatment

  • Despite this, usually there are few clinical signs. ( B465 .VIII.w8) Treatment There is no known medical treatment. ( B22 .32.w15) Associated Techniques History & Documentation Physical Examination of Mammals Necropsy of Mammals Environmental Assessment[web.archive.org]
  • & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis, and additional useful information HERE .[dovemed.com]
  • Likely because of the rarity of human cases, there is no standard treatment for D. renale infection in humans. The only known means is surgical excision of either adult worms or the infected kidney.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The only treatment for this parasite is surgical removal .[web.stanford.edu]

Prognosis

  • & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis, and additional useful information HERE .[dovemed.com]

Etiology

  • These cases are of unknown etiology, but are thought to have been caused by the consumption of raw fish. Because the rarity of dioctophyme renale infection in humans, no public health measures have been taken .[web.stanford.edu]
  • However, she had a habit of drinking unboiled water, which might be the etiology of this case. Clinical characteristics Thirty-one (83.8%) out of 37 cases involved the kidneys, with three of them showing bilateral kidney invasion [ 4, 14, 19 ].[parasite-journal.org]

Epidemiology

  • The complex epidemiological chain this is indirect life cycle that involves different species.[scielo.org.co]
  • […] and in seals and very rarely in humans Epidemiology : in Greenland Diphyllobothrium dalliae Epidemiology : from Alaska and Siberia Transmission : in Alaskan blackfish Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) Epidemiology : occurs throughout the circumpolar[web.archive.org]
  • Epidemiology and Pathology D. renale is a large red worm (20 to 100-cm by 5 to 12-mm in the case of the females; the males are smaller, 14 to 20-cm. The life cycle includes an intermediate host and the definitive host is a mammal.[isradiology.org]
  • Comprehensive epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this parasitic disease are presented here, enhancing the understanding of this parasitic disease.[parasite-journal.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • VIII.w8) Treatment There is no known medical treatment. ( B22 .32.w15) Associated Techniques History & Documentation Physical Examination of Mammals Necropsy of Mammals Environmental Assessment Treatment and Care Environmental and Population Management Preventative[web.archive.org]
  • , following prescribed treatment and/or surgical removal of the infected tissue Please find comprehensive information on Dioctophymiasis regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention[dovemed.com]
  • Prevention : effective control for diphyllobothriasis originating from D. latum has been achieved in many areas by a combination of selective drug therapy and improved sewage treatment.[web.archive.org]
  • Life cycle of giant kidney worm as depicted on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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