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Dirofilaria Immitis

Dog Heartworm


Presentation

  • An asymptomatic patient with a pulmonary coin lesion surgically diagnosed with pulmonary dirofilariasis caused by infection with Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis) is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Physician
  • The physicians of the area must be alerted regarding the existence of human D. immitis infections and include dirofilariasis in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Aust Fam Physician. 2007, 36: 986-989. PubMed Google Scholar Khasnis AA, Nettleman MD: Global warming and infectious disease. Arch Med Res. 2005, 36: 689-696. 10.1016/j.arcmed.2005.03.041.[parasitesandvectors.com]
Hunting
  • Hunting dogs and watch dogs show higher prevalence. This influence is presumably due to vector exposure rates as they have a greater chance of being bitten by mosquitoes [ 28, 48, 49, 50 ].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PubMed View Article Google Scholar Papazahariadou MG, Koutinas AF, Rallis TS, Haralabidis ST: Prevalence of microfilaemia in episodic weakness and clinically normal dogs belonging to hunting breeds.[parasitesandvectors.com]
Chills
  • […] may infect humans as secondary end stage host, particularly in southern coastal states in US Adult worms die in right ventricle, embolize in pulmonary arterial circulation Embolization of dead worms may be clinically silent or cause chest pain, fever, chills[pathologyoutlines.com]
Inguinal Hernia
  • This case was unique in that it involved the spermatic cord, produced significant symptoms, and upon physical examination was suspected of being an incarcerated inguinal hernia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypothermia
  • Adverse reactions, the severity of which is likely related to microfilarial numbers, were observed in 6% of 126 dogs receiving ivermectin at the microfilaricidal dose. 30 Signs included shock, depression, hypothermia, and vomiting.[vin.com]
Osteophyte
  • Other pathological findings were hepatic atrophy with multifocal necrosis, multifocal ab ingestis pneumonia, some follicular adenomas in both thyroid glands and fibrous osteodistrophic changes of the bones of the carpal joints, with osteophytes and multiple[doi.org]
Fracture
  • […] pathological findings were hepatic atrophy with multifocal necrosis, multifocal ab ingestis pneumonia, some follicular adenomas in both thyroid glands and fibrous osteodistrophic changes of the bones of the carpal joints, with osteophytes and multiple fractures[doi.org]
Subcutaneous Nodule
  • nodule - Photos.png 1,645 2,894;5.31メガバイト Parasite140076-fig2 Dirofilaria repens removed from a subcutaneous nodule - Phylogenetic analysis.png 1,720 2,903;1.1メガバイト Parasite160032-fig1 - Dirofilaria immitis (left) in a child from the Russian Federation[commons.wikimedia.org]
  • These species are responsible for the development of benign pulmonary and subcutaneous nodules, respectively, that can be confused with lung or cutaneous cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Foreign Body Sensation
  • A 51-year-old man from the Emilia-Romagna region of northeastern Italy referred for ocular foreign body sensation in his right eye. A slight swelling of the bulbar conjunctiva was observed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Grieving
  • However, this filaria specie can also occasionally be found in others canines, felines and even in humans (Grieve et al., 1983).[scielo.br]
  • Grieve R. B., Glickman L. T., Bater A. K., Mika-Grieve M., Thomas C. B., Patronek G. J. Canine Dirofilaria immitis infection in a hyperenzootic area: examination by parasitologic findings at necropsy and by two serodiagnostic methods.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PubMed Central PubMed View Article Google Scholar Willard MD, Roberts RE, Allison N, Grieve RB, Escher K: Diagnosis of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Dirofilaria immitis infections in cats from a human shelter.[parasitesandvectors.com]

Workup

  • Thomas, DVM, DipACVIM (Cardiology) Signalment 13-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat named "Boris" Presenting Complaints Enlarged heart Pertinent History Boris presented today for further workup of heart disease diagnosed by the referring veterinarian[web.archive.org]
Pulmonary Coin Lesion
  • An asymptomatic patient with a pulmonary coin lesion surgically diagnosed with pulmonary dirofilariasis caused by infection with Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis) is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pulmonary Coin Lesion
  • An asymptomatic patient with a pulmonary coin lesion surgically diagnosed with pulmonary dirofilariasis caused by infection with Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis) is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • The course of treatment is not completed until several weeks later, when the microfilariae are dealt with in a separate course of treatment. Once heartworm tests are negative, the treatment is considered a success.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • If still positive, the treatment is repeated or alternatively, chemoprophylaxis begun (assuming that no adverse reaction occurred on the initial treatment). 5,5a Persistent antigenemia indicates continued patent infection.[vin.com]
  • The resorption rate was decreased to 11.1% (resorbed fetus 3/total fetus 27) with rDiAg treatments. The IL-4, IL-23 and TNF-α concentrations in serum were significantly lower in rDiAg-treated mice than mock-treated mice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment, Prevention, and Control Cats There are no products approved for feline heartworm treatment in the United States.[edis.ifas.ufl.edu]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis for feline heartworm disease is guarded.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • To characterize risk factors, clinical findings, usefulness of diagnostic tests, and prognosis in cats with naturally occurring heartworm infection (HWI). Retrospective study. 50 cats with Dirofilaria immitis infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • (Atkins, DeFrancesco, Coats, Sidley, Keene) Objective —To characterize risk factors, clinical findings, usefulness of diagnostic tests, and prognosis in cats with naturally occurring heartworm infection (HWI). Design —Retrospective study.[doi.org]
  • Abstract Objective—To characterize risk factors, clinical findings, usefulness of diagnostic tests, and prognosis in cats with naturally occurring heartworm infection (HWI). Design—Retrospective study.[citeseerx.ist.psu.edu]
  • Assessment of cardiopulmonary status is indispensable for evaluating a patient's prognosis.[web.archive.org]

Etiology

  • The dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis has been diagnosed by thoracotomy as the etiology of neoplastic-appearing nodules in two patients in the Peoria, Illinois area.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The clinician must use a combination of test results to determine the likelihood of heartworm disease as the etiology of the cat's symptomatology.[web.archive.org]

Epidemiology

  • The Spanish epidemiological situation is not well understood, lacking data from many central and Northern provinces.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Key words: Dirofilaria immitis / Dirofilariosis / Morphology / Molecular identification / Zoonosis / Epidemiology N.I.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • This results has important bearing on the dynamics of heartworm-induced pathophysiological changes during infection and could influence the nature and chronology of responses to therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiological response to heartworm infection is mainly due to the presence of adult worms of Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary arteries and right ventricle of the heart [ 8, 17 ].[parasite-journal.org]
  • Pathophysiology of Feline Heartworm Disease The clinical importance of heartworms is amplified in cats because even a small number of heartworms are potentially life-threatening.[web.archive.org]

Prevention

  • This is true even in cold climates after intentional interruption of preventative therapy because there is infrequent recrudescence of microfilaremia with the macrolide preventatives.[vin.com]
  • Indeed, prevention centers on using heartworm preventive products of this nature, as were reviewed above; however, more recently preventing actual mosquito bites has become a goal as well.[veterinarypartner.com]
  • In the experimental group given both heartworm prevention and Vectra 3-D, one dog was infected with L3 stage larvae that did not mature into adulthood due to the heartworm prevention. Using a repellant and a prevention is over 99% effective.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • If proven, and not controlled in the early stages, the emergence of ML drug resistance threatens to become a widespread problem in the US that may limit the effectiveness of current preventive drug treatment methods.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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