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Disorder of Refraction and Accommodation


  • Ophthalmic History 8 Presenting Complaint History Of Presenting Complaint Past Ocular History General Health Medications And Allergies Family Ocular History Social History Test Questions 3.[ophthalmologytraining.com]
  • Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time and may be associated with other problems, such as injuries.[icdlist.com]
  • Thus, there were no significant group differences between the on- and off-drug state present on univariate analysis for acuity, accommodation, or refractive error.[nature.com]
  • If light rays are not focused on the retina, a refractive error is present. The refractive errors are: myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.[jec.co.id]
  • Test again using a pinhole: if they do better, an uncorrected refractive error may be present.[patient.info]
  • Research of Disorder Of Refraction And/or Accommodation has been linked to Adjustment Disorders, Rhinorrhea, Allergic Rhinitis (disorder), Cardiovascular Diseases, Urolithiasis.[novusbio.com]
  • Read more about astigmatism. atopy Type of allergy where levels of the antibody immunoglobin E are increased; atopy includes rhinitis, asthma, hay fever and eczema. aura A sensation experienced before an attack of epileptic seizure, migraine or other[allaboutvision.com]
  • Research of Disorder Of Refraction And/or Accommodation has been linked to Adjustment Disorders, Rhinorrhea, Allergic Rhinitis (disorder), Cardiovascular Diseases, Urolithiasis.[novusbio.com]
Blurred Vision
  • Symptoms of insufficiency Asthenopia Blurred vision for near work (? distance) Over- or under-convergence Investigation of insufficiency Exclude...[academy.org.uk]
  • Symptoms include blurred vision, double vision, eye strain, headache, fatigue and difficulty concentrating (particularly while reading).[allaboutvision.com]
  • Dhaliwal, MD, L.Ac, Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine In refractive disorders, light rays entering the eye are not focused on the retina, causing blurred vision.[merckmanuals.com]
  • The result of refractive errors is blurred vision, which is sometimes so severe that it causes visual impairment.[who.int]
Muscle Spasm
  • Bell's palsy See cranial nerve palsy . benign essential blepharospasm Neurological disorder causing involuntary muscle contractions, with eyelid muscle spasms. best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) The best vision you can achieve with correction (such as[allaboutvision.com]
  • Accommodative excess This arises as a result of ciliary muscle spasm.[patient.info]
  • ; spasm of the orbicular muscle of the eyelids BLIND SPOT the part of the visual field corresponding to that part of the optic fundus where the optic nerve enters is the physiological blind spot.[sdsbvi.northern.edu]
  • Dysphoneidesia is a subtype of dyslexia. Its characteristics are a combination of the other two forms of dyslexia: Dysphonesia and Dyseidetic. Dysphonesia - inability to "sound out" words. Dysphonesia is a subtype of dyslexia.[eyevertise.com]
  • Limitation of this review is lack of systemic review and lack of clinical trials [3].Eye exercises can improve a large group of terms including vergence problems, ocular motility disorders, accommodative dysfunction, amblyopia, learning disabilities, dyslexia[biomed.ktu.lt]
  • DRY EYE keratoconjunctivitis sicca DUCTIONS ocular movements of one eye only DUCTION a stem word with a prefix to describe turning or rotation of the eyeball (abduction-turning out, adduction-turning in) DYSLEXIA psychological abnormality in which despite[sdsbvi.northern.edu]
  • […] of accommodation H52.521 Paresis of accommodation, right eye H52.522 Paresis of accommodation, left eye H52.523 Paresis of accommodation, bilateral H52.529 Paresis of accommodation, unspecified eye H52.53 Spasm of accommodation H52.531 Spasm of accommodation[healthprovidersdata.com]
  • […] of accommodation ICD-10 H52.521 - Paresis of accommodation, right eye ICD-10 H52.522 - Paresis of accommodation, left eye ICD-10 H52.523 - Paresis of accommodation, bilateral ICD-10 H52.529 - Paresis of accommodation, unspecified eye ICD-10 H52.53 -[icd10coded.com]
  • […] astigmatism convert 367.22 to ICD-10-CM 367.3 Anisometropia and aniseikonia 367.31 Anisometropia convert 367.31 to ICD-10-CM 367.32 Aniseikonia convert 367.32 to ICD-10-CM 367.4 Presbyopia convert 367.4 to ICD-10-CM 367.5 Disorders of accommodation 367.51 Paresis[icd9data.com]
  • Accommodation paralysis and paresis as a rule are neurogenic or can develop after an injury or toxication. Patients with normal eyesight or hyperopic experience deterioration of near-sight.[en.excimerclinic.ru]
  • Symptoms include: double vision, headaches, eyestrain, nausea, dizziness, and blurred vision. Clinical signs: esophoria greater at distance than near, low AC/A ratio, and reduced negative fusional vergence at distance.[eyevertise.com]
  • Where there is a large refractive difference, the patient may experience diplopia, headaches, photophobia, reading difficulties, nausea, dizziness and general fatigue [ 7 ] .[patient.info]


  • Third, studies will explore the role of the slow adaptive component in accommodative weakness. This work will lead to better methods for diagnosing and treating accommodative disorders.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • […] accommodation spasm fast fatigue when working with near located objects; burning or smarting sensation, reddening of eyes; image located near is not clear, the one far off is blurred, doubling sometimes; a child is tired at classes sooner, learning progress is slow[en.excimerclinic.ru]
  • Strategies being studied to slow worsening include adjusting working conditions, increasing the time children spend outdoors, [12] and special types of contact lenses. [17] In children special contact lenses appear to slow worsening of nearsightedness[en.wikipedia.org]
  • They may also complain of an accommodative lag (a slowed recovery time changing from distance to near tasks and vice versa). Individuals may also report tiring with continuous close work.[patient.info]
  • Tonic - slow, smooth tension. (See "Fusional Vergence") Tonic Vergence - convergence due to the basic tonicity (tension) of the extraocular muscles, which are responsible, in part, for the distance phoria.[eyevertise.com]


  • ., RAF rule Facility of accommodation with "lens flippers" Accommodative fatigue Apart from overuse, factors that influence onset of fatigue include refractive status relationship with convergence Symptoms of accommodative fatigue Asthenopia Treatment[academy.org.uk]
  • As with myopia and hyperopia many treatment options are available.[themidwestcenterforsight.com]
  • There is no known treatment. Individuals may benefit from low-vision aids. Treatment options for strabismus and nystagmus does apply to these individuals. For more information about albinism, click here .[eyevertise.com]
  • The treatment method here is optimal correction selection for near sight considering age and initial refraction.[en.excimerclinic.ru]
  • Others studies analyzed treatment for myopia: optical correction, pharmaceutical treatment like cycloplegic promoters, vision therapy, orthokeratology, refractive surgeries (radial keratotomy, excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy), osteopathy, yoga[biomed.ktu.lt]


  • PMID: 24322122 Prognosis Grzybowski A, Schachar RA, Gaca-Wysocka M, Schachar IH, Kamangar F, Pierscionek BK Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Feb;256(2):395-402. Epub 2017 Nov 16 doi: 10.1007/s00417-017-3843-2.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Retinal atrophy patches in the macula cause loss in central vision Expectations (prognosis) Early diagnosis of myopia is important, since a person can suffer socially and educationally by not being able to see well at a distance.[aurosiksha.org]


  • Etiology Exp Eye Res 2018 Jan;166:96-105. Epub 2017 Oct 16 doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2017.10.004.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Please download the file: video/mp4 Video 9.2 : The eye with astigmatism Epidemiology & Risk factors In France, 15% of the population may have astigmatism.[quantel-medical.com]
  • In the future, China may expect a growing burden of vision loss due to population growth and ageing. vision epidemiology public health years lived with disability Statistics from Altmetric.com Request Permissions If you wish to reuse any or all of this[bjo.bmj.com]
  • "Epidemiology of myopia" . Eye (London, England) . 28 (2): 202–8. doi : 10.1038/eye.2013.280 . PMC 3930282 . PMID 24406412 . a b Pan, CW; Ramamurthy, D; Saw, SM (January 2012). "Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia".[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • It is necessary to learn to think in 3 dimensions in order to grasp the pathophysiology.[intranet.tdmu.edu.ua]


  • Related links Refractive errors and low vision Prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment[who.int]
  • , Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing , China Correspondence to Professor Ningli Wang, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; wningli{at}vip.163.com Abstract Aims[bjo.bmj.com]
  • The early prophylactic and treatment of accommodation spasm can prevent myopia development. Pseudomyopia. Accomodation spasm Article rating: 4.5 /5 ( 4 ratings) Rate this article Saving your rating... Thanks for rating[en.excimerclinic.ru]
  • A refractive disorder is an ocular condition caused by changes in the shape of the eye, which prevents light from being focused sharply on the retina, creating unclear images.[news-medical.net]
  • Besides, as it happens with myopic people , some simple VISUAL HYGIENE AND ERGONOMIC RULES will help prevent her reaching that visual stress. Modification of the patient's habits and visual environment is occasionally useful as an adjunct therapy.[rosavisionenglish.blogspot.com]

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