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Disseminated Sporotrichosis


Presentation

  • A 40-year-old Caucasian man presented to the dermatology clinic at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, in February 2003, for the evaluation of three nonhealing ulcers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To the best of our knowledge, bizarre atypical presentation of sporotrichosis, in an immunocompetent is a rare presentation.[e-ijd.org]
  • She was commenced on itraconazole 200 mg daily for treatment of lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis, the most common presentation of the disease. She re-presented to our clinic 12 months later with very poor compliance.[medicaljournals.se]
Weight Loss
  • The infection can spread to joints and bones (called osteoarticular sporotrichosis) as well as the central nervous system and the brain (called sporotrichosis meningitis).The symptoms of disseminated sporotrichosis include weight loss, anorexia, and appearance[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Symptoms of disseminated sporotrichosis include: Weight loss Loss of appetite or anorexia Bony lesions This form of the disease can lead to or be accompanied by arthritis and osteomyelitis or infection of the bones.[healthinplainenglish.com]
  • It may cause breathing difficulties, chest pain, cough, fever, fatigue, and unintentional weight loss. Sporotrichosis can also be spread to humans from infected animals (especially cats) through scratches and bites.[healthline.com]
  • Deep infection with sporotrichosis is more difficult to recognize and has few distinguishing characteristics,4,1019 although patients with pulmonary involvement may have signs of systemic illness with nonproductive coughs, weight loss, and malaise.20,21[healio.com]
  • Pulmonary disease may present with a productive cough, occasionally with haemoptysis, along with fever and weight loss.[fidssa.co.za]
Constitutional Symptom
  • A 50-year-old black man with constitutional symptoms, cutaneous nodules, and bilateral hilar adenopathy was found to have non-caseating granulomata on bronchial biopsy. He was treated with corticosteroids for sarcoidosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • However, it is inconvenient to administer and side effects are common although not serious and include metallic taste, nausea, abdominal pain, and salivary gland enlargement.[clinicalgate.com]
  • Saturated solution of potassium iodide is inconvenient to take and its common side effects include metallic taste, nausea, abdominal pain, salivary gland enlargement, and rash.[web.archive.org]
Fracture
  • It has been shown by freeze fracturing studies that in conidia invaginations are short and abundant and in yeast forms they are scarce and longer, while the plasma membrane of the S. schenckii hyphae is smooth, without invaginations ( 244 ).[doi.org]
Mononeuropathy
  • This case illustrates that multiple mononeuropathies are not always caused by vasculitis, and a correct pathological diagnosis should be established before treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Disseminated sporotrichosis presenting with granulomatous inflammatory multiple mononeuropathies. Muscle Nerve 2007;36:866–72.)[neupsykey.com]
Hyperactivity
  • Blood mononuclear cell studies revealed hyperactive suppressor cells with respect to non-specific T cell targets and the antigen specific target.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Bilateral Hilar Adenopathy
  • A 50-year-old black man with constitutional symptoms, cutaneous nodules, and bilateral hilar adenopathy was found to have non-caseating granulomata on bronchial biopsy. He was treated with corticosteroids for sarcoidosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • However, the benefits and adverse reactions of these treatments have not yet been systematically reviewed. Objectives: To assess the effects of oral potassium iodide for the treatment of sporotrichosis.[cochrane.org]
  • Terbinafine was well tolerated and the frequency of drug‐related AEs was slightly higher in the 1000 mg treatment group. Both doses of terbinafine were well‐tolerated and effective for the treatment of sporotrichosis.[doi.org]
  • […] reports and nonrandomized treatment trials.[web.archive.org]
  • The optimal treatment of systemic sporotrichosis in HIV-positive patients is as yet unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • (Outcomes/Resolutions) The prognosis of Sporotrichosis is generally good with appropriate treatment Disseminated Sporotrichosis may become fatal for patients with weak immune systems.[dovemed.com]
  • Outlook and prognosis Excellent for cutaneous and lymphocutaneous disease, with cure rates exceeding 95%.[life-worldwide.org]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) With treatment, full recovery is likely. Disseminated sporotrichosis is more difficult to treat and requires several months of therapy. Disseminated sporotrichosis can be life-threatening for people with a weakened immune system.[ufhealth.org]
  • The prognosis for patients with lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis is generally regarded as excellent3,4,31"33 with little anticipated functional compromise or cosmetic deformity.[healio.com]
  • [2, 3] Age Sporotrichosis may occur in any age, but it typically affects adults, reflecting their more frequent participation in veterinary care, gardening, woodworking, and occupational situations in which puncture wounds may occur. [2, 3, 6, 7, 8] Prognosis[emedicine.com]

Etiology

  • Although consistent with sarcoidosis, these findings were insufficient to exclude other etiologies, including disseminated fungal infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • (Etiology) Sporotrichosis is a skin infection caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii This fungus is found on rose thorns, hay, sphagnum moss, twigs and decaying vegetables The fungus enters the skin through cuts or scrapes made by thorns, barbs, pine[dovemed.com]
  • Incidence of specific etiology and role of methods for specific etiologic diagnosis of primary acute pericarditis. Am J Cardiol 1995; 75:378-382 Chapter 9 SPECIFIC PERICARDIAL DISORDERS Congenital malformations and acquired diseases 1. ‎[books.google.es]
  • Sporotrichosis By: Brittney Majefski Etiologic agent: Sporothrix schenckii(3). General characteristics : Sporotrichosis is a fungal disease that is scene all over the world.[austincc.edu]
  • Culture Definitive sporotrichosis diagnosis is based on the isolation and identification of the etiological agent in culture ( 126 ).[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Flavio Queiroz-Telles, Marcio Nucci, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Angela Tobón and Angela Restrepo, Mycoses of implantation in Latin America: an overview of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment, Medical Mycology, 49, 3, (225), (2011[doi.org]
  • [Sporotrichosis: prevalence, clinical and epidemiological features in a reference center in Colombia]. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2010 Jun 30. 27(2):75-9. [Medline]. Barros MB, de Almeida Paes R, Schubach AO. Sporothrix schenckii and Sporotrichosis.[emedicine.com]
  • Meningeal and pulmonary sporotrichosis are difficult to diagnose and treat, with less positive outcomes. 2015 review: Global Epidemiology of Sporotrichosis Images Appearance of a nodule in the skin lesion which is an early feature of sporotrichosis An[life-worldwide.org]
  • […] mycetoma all develop at sites of penetrat-ing injuries, but differ in epidemiology, clinical findings and treatment.ChromoblastomycosisEtiology and pathogenesis Chromoblastomycosis is caused by various pigmented or dematiaceous fungi.[dokumen.tips]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • This contributed significantly to the current understanding of Sporothrix schenckii, its growth patterns, and its mechanisms of dissemination. [2, 3] Pathophysiology Sporotrichosis infections can be either cutaneous or extracutaneous.[emedicine.com]
  • A thorough review of the topic was published by Barros et al in 2011. [5] Pathophysiology Infection with the dimorphic soil fungus S schenckii is usually acquired from organic matter through cutaneous inoculation.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Response to treatment is variable and chronic suppressive therapy is probably needed to prevent relapse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention of this disease includes wearing long sleeves and gloves while working with soil, hay bales, rose bushes, pine seedlings, and sphagnum moss. Also, keeping cats indoors is a preventative measure.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.[cdc.gov]
  • How Can I Prevent Sporotrichosis? There is no vaccine to prevent sporotrichosis.[medicinenet.com]

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