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Dracunculus Medinensis


Presentation

  • This paper presents fieldwork carried out to investigate a guinea worm rumor in Cameroon which turned out to be an Onchocerca volvulus mimicking Dracunculus medinensis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • When such patients present, especially in non-endemic countries, diagnosis may be problematical. We report a patient who presented with pain and swelling in the left lumbar region.[karger.com]
  • Presentation by Joy Tapp at Georgia State University 111006 Dracunculiasis (Dracunculus medinensis) (guinea worm disease) 1. (guinea worm disease) Presentation by: Joy Tapp Dracunculiasis [Dracunculus medinensis] 2.[slideshare.net]
Constitutional Symptom
  • Clinical description Clinical manifestations appear 10-14 months after infection and include constitutional symptoms (such as low-grade fever, itchy rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness) followed by a localized swelling developing into a painful[orpha.net]
Periorbital Edema
  • As the blister forms, there is an onset of fever and generalized allergic symptoms, including: uticaria, intense itching, asthma attacks, periorbital edema, nausea and vomiting.[masterroshsi.blogspot.com]

Workup

Anergy
  • Cytokine control of parasite-specific anergy in human urinary schistosomiasis. IL-10 modulates lymphocyte reactivity, J.[doi.org]
Entamoeba Histolytica
  • In parallel, diminished IFN-gamma and IL-12 responses to antigens from Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica and mycobacteria were observed in patent and post-patent dracunculiasis cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In parallel, diminished IFN-γ and IL-12 responses to antigens from Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica and mycobacteria were observed in patent and post-patent dracunculiasis cases.[doi.org]
Brugia Malayi
  • In contrast, positive control Brugia malayi worms were shown to harbour Wolbachia by PCR, fluorescence staining and immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: Three examined species of Dracunculus showed no evidence of Wolbachia endobacteria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Tissues from D. medinensis (A), D. lutrae (B) and D. insignis (C) were stained with propidium iodide as described [ 23 ] and compared to Wolbachia -harbouring Brugia malayi tissues (D).[parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com]
Necator Americanus
  • ., 2006 Cytokine and chemokine responses in patients co-infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Necator americanus and Mansonella perstans and changes after anti-parasite treatment, Microbes Infect., 2006 , vol. 8 (pg. 238 - 247 ) WHO, 2000 Dracunculiasis[doi.org]

Treatment

  • Management and treatment There is no effective medication or vaccine for dracunculiasis. Infected persons do not become immune to subsequent infection.[orpha.net]
  • The goal of this paper is to examine the morphology, anatomy and ecology of this nematode, as well as ways of treatment of infected people.[digre.pmf.unizg.hr]
  • TREATMENT::: * Remove worm * Worms that have emerged from skin may be successfully removed by wrapping the worm around a, small stick. This process often lasts a few weeks to months.[slideshare.net]
  • […] when copepods die larva penetrate host stomach/intestine and reproduce fertilized worm migrates to skin surface and blisters releases eggs when it feels water Dracunculus medinensis egg release Dracunculus medinensis prevention Dracunculus medinensis treatment[quizlet.com]
  • Treatment: 1. Removal of adult worm from ulcer by Indian barber technique, 2. The drugs (Niridazole, thiobendazole, mebendazole, metronidazole) reduce duration of emergence and associated pain, Ivermectin is under trial.[biologydiscussion.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Dracunculiasis is not life threatening itself but, rarely, death due to secondary sepsis has been reported.[orpha.net]
  • The prognosis is good unless a secondary bacterial infection of the lesion occurs. Who is more susceptible to Dracunculus medinensis ? Susceptibility to infection is universal.[ehagroup.com]
  • Because of the bizarre presentations that may occur, a definitive diagnosis is essential for the prognosis of the patient as the infection caused by the worm may masquerade as a number of other clinical conditions. 1996 S.[karger.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology Dracunculiasis is caused by the parasitic worm Dracunculus medinensis. Transmission occurs after drinking water contaminated with copepods that act as intermediate hosts to the infective parasite larvae.[orpha.net]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract The epidemiology of the guinea worm, Dracunculus medinensis, was studied in the dry savanna zone of West Africa.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Top Eberhard ML, Ruiz-Tiben E, Hopkins DR, Farrell C, Toe F, Weiss A, The peculiar epidemiology of dracunculiasis in Chad. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 ; 90 : 61 – 70.[doi.org]
  • "Guinea worm disease: epidemiology, control, and treatment" . Bulletin of the World Health Organization . 57 (5): 683–689. PMC 2395878 . PMID 161522 . a b c d Roberts, Larry S.; Janovy, John, Jr.; Nadler, Steve (2012-11-27). Gerald D.[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • A third measure of prevention is the use of nylon cloths manufactured and donated by DuPont as water filters.[facstaff.cbu.edu]
  • Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions.[doi.org]
  • PREVENTION- The only way to prevent guinea worm disease is to sanitize the water that is used to drink. Filtering, boiling and treating the water with chlorine before drinking or bathing will kill the intermediate host (copepods).[sites.google.com]
  • PREVENTION::: *The main way to prevent infection is through education *Educate indiviuals in areas prone to infection to: -Drink water from underground sources free from contamination -Do not enter drinking water sources with an ulcer -Use a filter for[slideshare.net]
  • Prevention depends on the provision of properly treated, safe, drinking water (boiled water).[masterroshsi.blogspot.com]

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