Dumping syndrome is a condition that majorly occurs in individuals after surgical procedures to remove all or some part of the stomach. Such a type of a condition also occurs when individuals have opted for bypass surgery of the stomach to lose weight.
Symptoms usually begin 15 to 20 minutes after a meal. Patients usually suffer from gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms . The common symptoms of dumping syndrome include nausea, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting and feeling of fullness after meal. In addition, patients also complain of palpitations, flushing, lightheadedness and rapid heart rate.
In other instances, signs and symptoms of dumping syndrome can develop after 1 to 3 hours of eating food; this condition is known as late dumping. Such a phenomenon occurs when huge amount of sugar is dumped into the small intestine, giving rise to condition known as hyperglycemia. Due to this, the body produces insulin to absorb the excess sugar and this in turn causes hypoglycemia  . Symptoms of late dumping include rapid heartbeat, palpitations, confusion, dizziness, and sweating, fatigue and hunger pangs.
The following methods would be employed for diagnosing dumping syndrome :
Various methods are required for treating dumping syndrome. The following are employed to treat the condition:
The severity of the symptoms gradually tends to get better with time. However, 1 to 2% individuals continue to experience the unfavorable symptoms even for several months after surgery. With long term treatment, there is considerable improvement in the condition of the patient. In addition, following strict dietary modifications and medications also significantly improves the symptoms .
Dumping syndrome primarily occurs due to surgical procedures that involves removal of the pylorus. Such an event causes rapid gastric emptying which in turn gives rise to occurrence of unfavorable symptoms. Another major causative factor that causes dumping syndrome to occur is the procedure of esophagectomy. In this process, the esophagus is removed which also is known to favor rapid gastric emptying.
Of late, gastric bypass surgery is one of the most preferred methods for weight loss. This is also considered to be one of the major and most common factors for development of dumping syndrome. The condition usually occurs after 2 to 3 weeks of surgery, but many times it occurs immediately after the individual returns to normal diet. In many cases, dumping syndrome becomes a chronic condition .
The extent of gastric surgery directly affects the severity of the symptoms. It has been estimated that about 15 to 20% of individuals who have undergone gastric bypass surgery, suffer from dumping syndrome. Of these, only 1 to 5% individuals are reported to experience debilitating symptoms. Statistics have also revealed that about, 6 to 14% of individuals who have undergone truncal vagotomy and drainage suffer from dumping syndrome. On the other hand, 14 to 20% individuals are reported to suffer from symptoms of dumping after procedure of partial gastrectomy . Females are at an increased risk of developing the condition compared to males.
Anatomically, the stomach contains the pylorus which is the opening between the stomach and the small intestine. Under normal conditions, the pylorus controls the emptying of the stomach contents. In condition of dumping syndrome, when there has been a surgery wherein the pylorus has been removed, the content of the stomach rapidly empties into the small intestine. The dumping syndrome primarily occurs due to 3 major phenomenons which are disturbed or abnormal functioning of the gastric motor after the surgery, improper pyloric emptying and altered function of the gastric reservoir function. The accompanying symptoms that occur as a result of rapid gastric emptying, primarily take effect due to increased secretion of insulin and release of hormones in the intestine .
Changes in the dietary habits are the best way to prevent the onset of dumping syndrome. Individuals are advised not to sip in liquids during meals. Avoiding simple sugars is also required in order to prevent the phenomenon of rapid gastric emptying from occurring.
Dumping syndrome is also referred to as rapid gastric emptying, which essentially occurs when the undigested contents of the stomach rapidly move down the small intestine. The rapid movement of the undigested contents causes the concerned individual to suffer from nausea, diarrhea and abdominal cramps. The changes that occur in the anatomy and physiology of the stomach due to surgery of the organ, promotes the development of dumping syndrome .