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Dysautonomia

Autonomic Dysfunction


Presentation

  • CONCLUSION: Though similar in clinical presentation, POTS and OI are different entities with greater, albeit still mild, dysautonomia in POTS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dysautonomia consisting of cardiovascular and sudomotor dysfunction is present in EDS-HT. Neuropathy, connective tissue laxity, and vasoactive medication probably play a role in its development.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a patient with postinfectious dysautonomia, which developed 2 weeks after a meningoencephalitic episode.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here, we present a 27-year-old woman who suffered from subacute onset of bladder paresis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the case of a 41-year-old woman with 2 years of progressive burning pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in a stocking-glove distribution who was found to have severe pyridoxine toxicity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Opisthotonus
  • Here we report a case of hanging associated anoxic brain injury resulting in severe dysautonomia and an extreme opisthotonus (arc de cercle).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Catatonia
  • Some of these syndromes can evolve into malignant catatonia requiring electroconvulsive therapy. Here we report a case of hanging associated anoxic brain injury resulting in severe dysautonomia and an extreme opisthotonus (arc de cercle).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Resting Tremor
  • MSA is differentiated from Parkinson disease by the asymmetric resting tremor, the poor response to levodopa, and the rapidly progressive nature of disease.[doi.org]

Workup

  • A complete workup for erectile dysfunction in men should include history (medical and sexual); psychological evaluation; hormone levels; measurement of nocturnal penile tumescence; tests to assess penile, pelvic, and spinal nerve function; cardiovascular[doi.org]
Hypocapnia
  • Circulation 1954; 10:362–5 Burnum JF, Hickam JB, McIntosh H: The effect of hypocapnia on arterial blood pressure.[doi.org]

Treatment

  • On the other hand, by understanding the pathophysiology, treatment success is possible by directing therapies toward the root causes and just as importantly, enlisting the patient in a daily treatment plan.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Is there any treatment? There is usually no cure for dysautonomia. Secondary forms may improve with treatment of the underlying disease. In many cases treatment of primary dysautonomia is symptomatic and supportive.[web.archive.org]
  • Successful objective and subjective treatments were multimodal and typically non-operative. INTERPRETATION: Lower urinary tract dysfunction may develop in at least 10 % of patients with dysautonomia, predominantly females.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 13-year-old boy with frequent episodes of vertigo and otologic symptoms was diagnosed with Ménière's disease (MD) but failed to respond to conventional treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To report the use of intranasal dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist for the acute treatment of refractory adrenergic crisis in patients with familial dysautonomia. Case series.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • What is the prognosis? The outlook for individuals with dysautonomia depends on the particular diagnostic category.[web.archive.org]
  • Prognosis The outlook for individuals with dysautonomia depends on the particular diagnostic category.[ninds.nih.gov]
  • What is the prognosis for dysautonomia? The outlook for individuals with dysautonomia depends on the particular diagnostic category.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • Prognosis With improved medical care, the life expectancy of people with Dysautonomia is increasing, and about 50 per cent live to the age of 30. Further Information and Support Click here for the latest Australian research papers on Dysautonomia.[brainfoundation.org.au]

Etiology

  • Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "It is not clear if patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) differ from patients with POTS due to other etiologies.[dinet.org]
  • […] involvement occurs but is very rare Mixed sensorimotor neuropathy (subacute/chronic) • • • • • • • Very large differential diagnosis Most sensorimotor neuropathies occur over a subacute to chronic (weeks/ months) time course May divide differential by etiology[123doc.org]
  • Long-term follow-up studies are needed to distinguish the exact roles of cardiovascular risk factors, nephropathy, and CAN in the etiology of cardiovascular disease.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology In general, these can occur in men and women at any age, but the epidemiology will depend on the particular cause. Some causes are very rare.[patient.info]
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DAN The reported prevalence of DAN varies, depending on whether studies have been carried out in the community, clinic, or tertiary referral center.[doi.org]
  • Epidemiological study on the effect of pre-hypertension and family history of hypertension on cardiac autonomic function. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51 : 1896 -1901. Yang, L. L., R. Gros, M. G. Kabir, A. Sadi, A. I. Gotlieb, M. Husain, and D. J.[doi.org]
  • ATP synthase 8 Cardiomyopathy Complex V Neuronopathy Small fiber sensory Pain Chemical MCP-1 TRPA1 channels SCA 17 SPG 11 SPG 20 November 2007 Dermatomyositis Leprosy PLS SCA 11 December 2007 AMAN ITP Lamin A/C LGMD 2A SCA17 TNF-α January 2008 ALS: Epidemiology[neuromuscular.wustl.edu]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • On the other hand, by understanding the pathophysiology, treatment success is possible by directing therapies toward the root causes and just as importantly, enlisting the patient in a daily treatment plan.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of minimal dysautonomia in the absence of orthostatic tachycardia as seen in OI remain uncertain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • “A critical review of the pathophysiology of dysautonomia following traumatic brain injury”. Neurocrit Care 8 (2): 293–300. doi:10.1007/s12028-007-9021-3. PMID 17968518. J Pediatr. 1999 Oct;135(4):494-9.[internationalpain.org]
  • Keywords : fibromyalgia; autonomic nervous system; pathophysiology; rheumatic disease; adrenergic receptor; dystautonomia.[scielo.br]
  • N Engl J Med 1993; 329:1449–55 Robertson D: The pathophysiology and diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • Early management can help prevent comorbidities including secondary brain injury while also improving patient outcomes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ultimately, research will hopefully result in an improvement of management with the aim of preventing early death in Huntington's disease from cardiac causes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For example, a feeding tube inserted into the stomach can assist in feeding, and prevent fluids etc. from entering the lungs, while drugs are prescribed to prevent vomiting and seizures, eye drops lubricate dry eyes, and surgery can correct scoliosis.[brainfoundation.org.au]
  • This research aims to discover ways to diagnose, treat, and, ultimately, prevent these disorders.[web.archive.org]

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