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  • Here, we present a 32-year-old woman presenting with a 9-month history of TD occurring after risperidone withdrawal, and characterized almost exclusively by tongue protrusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The diagnosis was not made at initial presentation or even after multiple hospital admissions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This report extends the KNCMA1 mutation phenotype with a patient who carries a novel frameshift variant, presenting with both the gain- and loss-of-function phenotypes along with spinal tract involvement as a novel characteristic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A range of differential diagnoses should be considered in patients presenting with an acute-onset movement disorder who have a history of long-term exposure to antipsychotic medication.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here, we present an exceptional case affected by this syndrome. Its singularity is 2-fold. On one hand, the patient presented periodic episodes of dyskinesia-hyperpyrexia during 3 consecutive summers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Muscle Tenderness
  • Face/neck muscle tenderness was also greatly reduced. The use of oral appliance therapy in TD patients plays an important role in protecting the teeth/oral mucosa.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Compulsive Disorder
  • Each patient underwent a comprehensive assessment including Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale and the Questionnaire for Impulsive Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson Disease-Rating Scale.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Focal Seizure
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of a young child with focal seizures and progressive dyskinesia in whom GlyR antibodies were detected.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • The search for safe, effective treatments for TD is ongoing. Valbenazine, a novel VMAT2 inhibitor, has recently been FDA approved for treatment of TD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment options are limited, and recommendations for treatment are based on a relative scarcity of evidence.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Tardive dyskinesia is difficult to treat, despite experimentation with several treatments. Calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nifedipine, nimodipine, verapamil, flunarizine) have been among these experimental treatments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Botulinum toxin is the mainstay of treatment for focal dystonia.[patient.info]
  • Piracetam is used as an adjunctive treatment for myoclonus of cortical origin.[patient.info]


  • As his prognosis was only days to weeks, we were able to effectively suppress his TD with haloperidol.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] of antipsychotics by injection also increases the risk of developing acute dystonia.Methamphetamine, other amphetamines and dopaminergic stimulants including cocaine and pemoline can produce choreoathetoid dyskinesias; the prevalence, time-frame and prognosis[en.wikipedia.org]


  • Its etiology is still unclear and there are few studies reporting its association with antipsychotics. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic that causes lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms than typical antipsychotics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] movement disorder adverse effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors only include extrapyramidal symptoms and myoclonus.Here is a case of an 81-year-old female Filipino with dementia who presented with first-onset generalized choreiform movements.The etiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide a review of tardive dyskinesia (TD) symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, and treatments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Preliminary epidemiological findings suggest that methamphetamine use might increase risk of subsequent development of Parkinson's disease.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • The finding that abnormal cortical oscillations are a key pathophysiological mechanism calls for a revision of the prevailing hypothesis that links levodopa-induced dyskinesia to an altered sensitivity to dopamine only in the striatum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology of TD is complex, multifactorial and still not fully understood. Although there is no identified effective and standard treatment for TD, several agents have been tried for the management of this motor disturbance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology of TD remains poorly understood, and treatment is often challenging.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood but since the 1970s dopamine depleting agents have been used to reduce involuntary movements. The search for safe, effective treatments for TD is ongoing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide a review of tardive dyskinesia (TD) symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, and treatments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Once established, LID are difficult to treat and therefore efforts should be made to prevent them.[doi.org]
  • This article addresses the prevalence, risk factors, and prevention of TD; assessment strategies including diagnostic criteria and rating scales; and evidence for TD treatments, including 2 newly approved medications: deutetrabenazine and valbenazine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Vitamin E has been proposed as a treatment to prevent or decrease TD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Many, such as under-the-skin levodopa pumps, are designed to keep dopamine levels consistent to control symptoms and prevent dykinesia.[michaeljfox.org]
  • Therapy goals include the prevention of dyskinesia and treatment of dyskinesias that are troublesome clinically.[doi.org]

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