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Early-Onset Spastic Ataxia - Neuropathy Syndrome

SPAX5


Presentation

  • In the present article, the authors describe clinical and neuroradiological findings that raised the suspicion of an ARSACS diagnosis in two female cousins with Germanic background from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.[moh-it.pure.elsevier.com]
  • Some people present with generalized weakness in infancy while others present with adult-onset weakness that may include proximal muscles and sensory loss. Many people’s first symptom is cramping in the legs.[cmtausa.org]
  • Clinical Characteristics Ocular Features: Optic atrophy is generally but not always present. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia and nystagmus have been reported.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • Patients present with upper motor neuron palsy of bilateral lower limbs, gait abnormalities, and urinary urgency / urge incontinence. Dorsal column dysfunction is usually mild.[amboss.com]
  • Haemorrhage presents with occipital headache, vertigo, vomiting and altered consciousness.[patient.info]
Epilepsy
  • This produced an early-onset clinical syndrome that combines the severe phenotypes of SPG7 and SCA28, in additional to other "mitochondrial" features such as oculomotor apraxia, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and myoclonic epilepsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Haus Home Kartenmarker Quick overview Universität Core facilities for Rare Diseases Krankenhaus Parent facilities Zertifikat Certificates Kreisel European Reference Networks Einloggen Login A- A A beta beta Early-onset spastic ataxia-myoclonic epilepsy-neuropathy[se-atlas.de]
  • […] early onset spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome in two brothers of a consanguineous family characterized clinically by lower extremity spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, oculomotor apraxia, dystonia, cerebellar atrophy, and progressive myoclonic epilepsy[semanticscholar.org]
  • Get Update Overview Spastic ataxia-5 (SPAX5) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early-onset spasticity resulting in significantly impaired ambulation, cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, dystonia, and myoclonic epilepsy[diseaseinfosearch.org]
  • Additional neurological features such as epilepsy, peripheral neuropathy, or cerebellar signs may be present (complicated HSP). Diagnosis is mainly clinical. MRI of the spinal cord may demonstrate spinal cord atrophy.[amboss.com]
Italian
  • […] amyloidosis, Arctic type Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Dutch type Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Flemish type Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Iowa type Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Italian[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • Historically known as “ La Côte Francaise ” because of the large number of eighteenth century Acadian and French settlers, the village became a settling point for several cultural groups, including Germans, Spanish, Italians, and other American colonials[medschool.lsuhsc.edu]
  • Preliminary evidence of focal muscle vibration effects on spasticity due to cerebral palsy in a small sample of Italian children.[en.wikipedia.org]
Short Stature
  • Disease Type of connection Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 CLN3 disease Intermittent hydrarthrosis TRAPS syndrome Short stature due to isolated growth hormone deficiency with X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia X-linked agammaglobulinemia 17q11 microdeletion[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • stature - immunodeficiency Aceruloplasminemia Acquired angioedema Acquired ataxia Acquired central diabetes insipidus Acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anemia Acquired myasthenia gravis Acquired neutropenia Acquired peripheral neuropathy Acquired von[sanfordresearch.org]
  • Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia, shy character, and short stature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pathologist
  • PMID: 24603320 Assay Assay and technical information Invitae is a College of American Pathologists (CAP)-accredited and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified clinical diagnostic laboratory performing full-gene sequencing and deletion[invitae.com]
Malnutrition
  • Chronic progressive ataxias Commonly caused by chronic alcohol abuse associated with malnutrition. May improve with thiamine. May also occur with other deficiencies, including zinc and vitamin E.[patient.info]
Muscle Spasticity
  • Treatment is mainly supportive, with skeletal muscle relaxants, botulinum toxin, and physiotherapy for muscle spasticity. HSP may be nonprogressive ( childhood-onset ) or progressive ( adult-onset ).[amboss.com]
Onset in Infancy or Childhood
  • Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome: Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome is a rare disorder with onset in infancy or childhood. Homozygosity mapping in two large consanguineous families of Turkish and Norwegian origin mapped the disease gene on chromosome 5q31[ 45 ].[wjgnet.com]
Ataxia
  • Disease Type of connection Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 CLN3 disease Intermittent hydrarthrosis TRAPS syndrome Short stature due to isolated growth hormone deficiency with X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia X-linked agammaglobulinemia 17q11 microdeletion[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • Clinicians will gain a broader understanding of generative ataxias and the genetic disorders associated with them.[books.google.de]
  • […] type 1 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 11 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 15/16 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 Spinocerebellar ataxia[se-atlas.de]
  • […] onset cerebellar ataxia Friedreich's ataxia Friedreichs ataxia Josephs disease Lumbar neuromuscular scoliosis due to friedreich's ataxia Lumbar scoliosis due to friedreichs ataxia Lumbosacral neuromuscular scoliosis due to friedreich's ataxia Lumbosacral[icd10data.com]
  • Autosomal dominant ataxias include the spinocerebellar ataxias and episodic ataxias. Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) represent the most common form of chronic progressive ataxia in adults.[bcm.edu]
Cerebellar Ataxia
  • ataxia Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type I Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type II Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type III Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type IV Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia-deafness-narcolepsy syndrome[se-atlas.de]
  • Applicable To Early-onset cerebellar ataxia with essential tremor Early-onset cerebellar ataxia with myoclonus [Hunt's ataxia] Early-onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes Friedreich's ataxia (autosomal recessive) X-linked recessive spinocerebellar[icd10data.com]
  • ataxia - areflexia - pes cavus - optic atrophy - sensorineural hearing loss Cerebellar ataxia, Cayman type Cerebellar ataxia - hypogonadism Cerebellar ataxia - ectodermal dysplasia Cerebellar ataxia with peripheral neuropathy Cerebellar hypoplasia -[sanfordresearch.org]
  • Abstract Objective: To report the clinical findings and the genetic linkage mapping of an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia associated to peripheral neuropathy, showing an early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes (EOCA) phenotype[neurology.org]
  • AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT CEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (ADCA) Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) frequently represent spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). They are numbered according to the order of detection in the genetic locus.[e-jmd.org]
Dysmetria
  • Tremor, dysmetria, and poor coordination of fine movements are often present. A sensorineural hearing loss has been found in several individuals. Peripheral neuropathy has been reported as well.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • Finger-nose and heel-knee-shin tests will demonstrate even mild limb ataxia, with terminal intention tremor and dysmetria (past pointing). Acute-onset ataxia Either due to cerebellar haemorrhage or infarction.[patient.info]
  • When she was 8 years old, the physical examination of the girl revealed a slight dysarthria, dysmetria on a finger-to-nose test, slowing of fast repetitive movements, and increased tricipital reflex.[ajnr.org]
Poor Coordination
  • Tremor, dysmetria, and poor coordination of fine movements are often present. A sensorineural hearing loss has been found in several individuals. Peripheral neuropathy has been reported as well.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • Patients show progressive incoordination of gait and often poor coordination of hands, speech and eye movements, due to degeneration of the cerebellum with variable involvement of the brainstem and spinal cord.[uniprot.org]
  • Ataxia is derived from the Greek word meaning "irregularity" or "disorderliness" but when used medically, the term describes a condition characterized by poor coordination of movements.[bcm.edu]
Neurologic Manifestation

Workup

  • It is divided into the following sections: Overview Differential Diagnoses & Workup Treatment & Medication Follow-up Multimedia[hspersunite.org.au]

Treatment

  • In addition, new neurophysiological and imaging techniques are discussed, along with an in-depth examination of the treatment and management protocols of ataxic diseases.[books.google.de]
  • Treatment Treatment Options: No treatment has been reported. References Senanayake N. A syndrome of early onset spinocerebellar ataxia with optic atrophy, internuclear ophthalmoplegia, dementia, and startle myoclonus in a Sri Lankan family.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • Management and treatment Treatment is symptomatic, aimed towards the control of spasticity, and should include physiotherapy and pharmacotherapy (that may include spasmolytic drugs such as baclofen).[orpha.net]
  • CLOSE Medical Disclaimer The medical information on this site is provided as an information resource only, and is not to be used or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes.[diseaseinfosearch.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis The period of latency before becoming wheelchair-bound is significantly longer in EOCARR than in FRDA, resulting in a better prognosis in patients with EOCARR than in those with FRDA.[orpha.net]
  • Management and prognosis This depends upon the underlying cause.[patient.info]
  • Prognosis [ edit ] Although HSP is a progressive condition, the prognosis for individuals with HSP varies greatly. It primarily affects the legs although there can be some upperbody involvement in some individuals.[en.wikipedia.org]

Etiology

  • Beginning with an examination of the cerebellar region, and then progressing to a fresh perspective on the clinical aspects of the various forms of ataxia, this handbook gives clinicians a state-of-the-art reference for the management of the many etiologies[books.google.de]
  • Etiology The exact etiology of EOCARR is still unknown. However, molecular genetic analysis in a Tunisian family confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of this syndrome and mapped the gene locus to chromosome 13q11-12.[orpha.net]
  • Etiology Pathophysiology Clinical features Pure HSP is characterized by an insidious onset and slow progression of the following symptoms Patients with complicated HSP have all the features of pure HSP as well as additional neurological features, such[amboss.com]
  • A systematic approach begins with localization of the lesion to the peripheral nerves, identification of the underlying etiology, and exclusion of potentially treatable causes.[aafp.org]

Epidemiology

  • […] spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome - Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia type 5 - SPAX5 Classification (Orphanet): - Inborn errors of metabolism - Rare genetic disease - Rare neurologic disease Classification (ICD10): - Diseases of the nervous system - Epidemiological[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • Epidemiology References: [1] [2] [3] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.[amboss.com]
  • Summary Epidemiology The prevalence of EOCARR ataxia has been estimated to be around 1/100,000, and the birth prevalence at 1/48,000 births in North-western Italy.[orpha.net]
  • Case control studies and epidemiological studies, including genetic sequencing of ARCA, are needed in Korea.[e-jmd.org]
  • The global epidemiology of hereditary ataxia and spastic paraplegia: a systematic review of prevalence studies. Neuroepidemiology. 2014; 42(3):174-83.[invitae.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Etiology Pathophysiology Clinical features Pure HSP is characterized by an insidious onset and slow progression of the following symptoms Patients with complicated HSP have all the features of pure HSP as well as additional neurological features, such[amboss.com]
  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2084–2088 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Werner ER, Blau N, Thöny B (2011) Tetrahydrobiopterin: biochemistry and pathophysiology (review).[link.springer.com]
  • Pathophysiology [ edit ] The major feature of HSP is a length dependent axonal degeneration. [21] These include the crossed and uncrossed corticospinal tracts to the legs and fasciculus gracilis.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Koenig[ 10 ] proposed a classification of ARCA based on topographical and pathophysiological criteria, while in the next year the group of Filla proposed a pathogenic classification of the hereditary ataxias[ 11 ].[wjgnet.com]

Prevention

  • Collaborative Meta-Analysis of Randomised Trials of Antiplatelet Therapy for Prevention of Death, Myocardial Infarction, and Stroke in High Risk Patients. ‎[books.google.es]
  • For patients with walking (gait) problems, canes, walkers, and wheelchairs will facilitate mobility and help to prevent falling and subsequent injury. A number of drugs are available to reduce some of the symptoms of HSP.[medschool.lsuhsc.edu]
  • Even though physical therapy does not either prevent or reduce degenerative changes to the person's spinal cord, it is believed that receiving regular therapy can play an important part in assisting people with HSP to maintain and increase their muscle[disabled-world.com]
  • Treatment [ edit ] No specific treatment is known that would prevent, slow, or reverse HSP. Available therapies mainly consist of symptomatic medical management and promoting physical and emotional well-being.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The long nerves (axons) are prevented from doing their critical job of sending the right signals to control the muscles. HSP is classified as an upper motor neurone neurodegenerative disease.[hspersunite.org.au]

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