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Echinococcus Infection of Lung

Pulmonary Echinococcosis


Presentation

  • RESULTS: The most common presenting symptoms were cough and chest pain. At presentation, 69 patients (22.4%) had complicated hydatid disease, cyst rupture into bronchus in 62 and into pleural cavity in 7.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cough
  • Two children presented with a non-productive cough, while one was asymptomatic. Surgery is the treatment of choice for pulmonary echinococcal cysts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pulmonary hydatid cyst may rupture into the bronchial tree and produce cough, chest pain, or hemoptysis.[jcytol.org]
  • Symptoms can include vague pains, cough, low-grade pyrexia and abdominal fullness. Later, as the mass presses on surrounding organs, symptoms become more specific.[patient.info]
Painful Cough
  • Pulmonary involvement can produce chest pain, cough, and hemoptysis. Rupture of the cysts can produce fever, urticaria, eosinophilia, and anaphylactic shock, as well as cyst dissemination.[web.archive.org]
  • Liver cysts cause pain and sometimes jaundice; lung cysts can cause pain, cough, and hemoptysis. E. multilocularis does not produce large cysts but invades and destroys surrounding tissue and can result in liver failure and death.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Symptoms can include vague pains, cough, low-grade pyrexia and abdominal fullness. Later, as the mass presses on surrounding organs, symptoms become more specific.[patient.info]
Pleural Effusion
  • Or they may come to notice due to pleural effusion.[jacpjournal.org]
  • Her investigations revealed high total leucocyte counts-14,500/cmm and CXR showed right-sided pleural effusion with bilateral cysts and nodular shadows [Figure 3].[cjhr.org]
  • CECT revealed a large cystic lesion in right lower lobe with multiple floating membranes in dependent patient like hydatid cyst with minimal right pleural effusion and consolidation of adjacent lung parenchyma [Figure 1] b.[ijmm.org]
  • If the cyst ruptured, the patient may develop allergic symptoms and anaphylaxis, transbronchial spread to other lobes, pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusion [ 7 ].[omicsonline.org]
  • Ultrasonography revealed a normal liver and small amount of right pleural effusion. Laboratory data revealed total leukocyte count of 11,900/mm3 with 69% polymorphs, 28% lymphocyte, and 3% eosinophils and a hemoglobin of 11.2 g%.[ctsnet.org]
Dry Cough
  • History: 69-year-old male, with history of COPD for 20 years and hypertension, presented to the ER with a 6-week history of dry cough and exertional dyspnea, loss of appetite and unintentional weight loss of 5 kg during the past month.[uab.edu]
  • Similarly, Fraz et al. [ 3 ] found in their observational study that dry cough is the commonest symptom among patient with pulmonary hydatid cyst.[omicsonline.org]
  • Case Report A 24 years old male presented with shortness of breath, dry cough and left sided chest pain for two months.[casereports.in]
Overeating
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 patients with 46 cysts, suspected of pulmonary echinococcosis, based on plain chest radiographs and clinical findings, were examined by ultrasound over a 9-year period (1996 - 2004), and followed up until discharge.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The embryos then begin to form cysts within the liver and lungs, causing damage as they enlarge over a period of five to 20 years. Cysts may become over 8 in (20.3 cm) or more in size and contain a huge amount of highly allergenic fluid.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • An exemplary ‘One Health’ approach – involving strong community participation, veterinary services and public health – has produced positive results over the years, with reduced incidence of cystic echinococcosis in both humans and livestock.[who.int]
  • In addition, numerous thin delicate filamentous organisms were seen growing over the lamellated membranes. One of the MGG stained smear was destained and stained with the Gram stain.[jcytol.org]
  • […] out over large geographic areas.[web.archive.org]
Poor Oral Hygiene
  • At this stage, it is difficult to diagnose on imaging due to atypical features. [1] Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare bacterial disease and it occurs due to poor oral hygiene, which allows the normal flora to proliferate.[jcytol.org]
Hepatomegaly
  • Abdomen: non-tender, non-distended, no hepatomegaly or splenomegaly. Remainder of the exam was unremarkable. Laboratory Examination: Hb 10.5 mg/dL, Hct 36%, WBC 11.4 (0 band, 68 neutrophils, 1 eosinophils, 9 monos, 22 lymphs), platelets 647,000.[uab.edu]
  • On the other hand, if the patient has cysts in the liver and is symptomatic, they will suffer from abdominal pain, abnormal abdominal tenderness, hepatomegaly with an abdominal mass, jaundice, fever and/or anaphylactic reaction.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Hepatic cysts can cause pain in the upper abdominal region, hepatomegaly, cholestasis, biliary cirrhosis, portal hypertension, ascites, and a variety of other manifestations ( 3, 149 ).[doi.org]
Chest Pain
  • Here we report an overseas Chinese from Calcutta, India, presenting with recurrent hemoptysis and chest pain and with two big lung masses on chest roentgenogram. Rupture and spike fever ensured after fine needle aspiration of the cysts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pulmonary hydatid cyst may rupture into the bronchial tree and produce cough, chest pain, or hemoptysis.[jcytol.org]
  • Pulmonary involvement can produce chest pain, cough, and hemoptysis. Rupture of the cysts can produce fever, urticaria, eosinophilia, and anaphylactic shock, as well as cyst dissemination.[web.archive.org]

Workup

Pleural Effusion
  • Or they may come to notice due to pleural effusion.[jacpjournal.org]
  • Her investigations revealed high total leucocyte counts-14,500/cmm and CXR showed right-sided pleural effusion with bilateral cysts and nodular shadows [Figure 3].[cjhr.org]
  • CECT revealed a large cystic lesion in right lower lobe with multiple floating membranes in dependent patient like hydatid cyst with minimal right pleural effusion and consolidation of adjacent lung parenchyma [Figure 1] b.[ijmm.org]
  • If the cyst ruptured, the patient may develop allergic symptoms and anaphylaxis, transbronchial spread to other lobes, pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusion [ 7 ].[omicsonline.org]
  • Ultrasonography revealed a normal liver and small amount of right pleural effusion. Laboratory data revealed total leukocyte count of 11,900/mm3 with 69% polymorphs, 28% lymphocyte, and 3% eosinophils and a hemoglobin of 11.2 g%.[ctsnet.org]

Treatment

Prognosis

  • Prognosis mainly depends on the type of infestation (ie, whether it is cystic [CE] or alveolar echinococcosis [AE]). In CE, the prognosis is generally good, and complete cure is possible with total surgical excision without spillage.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • With this approach, the prognosis can be improved for the majority of patients with AE. The consensus of experts under the aegis of the WHO-IWGE will help promote studies that provide missing evidence to be included in the next update.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical manifestations and prognosis vary, depending on the tissue invaded and the extent of infestation.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • (Outcomes/Resolutions) Generally, Echinococcus infection has good prognosis with appropriate treatment Older adults have a poorer prognosis, as compared to the younger children or adults Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Echinococcus: According[dovemed.com]

Etiology

  • However, an etiologic agent has not yet been identified in the respiratory tract of patients without asthma. In the present report, a patient without asthma but with bronchocentric granulomatosis and pulmonary echinococcosis is described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The development of our knowledge of echinococcus disease has been outlined, and its etiology and distribution have been described.[web.archive.org]
  • This case highlights an uncommon etiology of Pancoast syndrome which might mislead physicians in their practice. Introduction Pancoast was the first author to describe in 1924 a syndrome related to tumors that involve the lung apex [ 1 ].[panafrican-med-journal.com]
  • Etiology and management of pediatric hemoptysis. Ann Otolayngol Head Neck Surg 2001;127:377-382. 10. Batra PS, Holinger LD. Etiology and management of pediatric hemoptysis. Ann Otolayngol Head Neck Surg 2001;127:377-382. 11. Bashour FA.[sajch.org.za]
  • (Etiology) Echinococcus is a disease that is spread from infected animals, caused mostly by the parasitic worm Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis This worm is also known as the hydatid worm, hyper tape worm or dog tapeworm; members[dovemed.com]

Epidemiology

  • Method Publications on alveolar echinococcosis throughout the world were systematically reviewed with special reference to ecology, epidemiology and countermeasures.[doi.org]
  • However, the increasing use of mass screenings with ultrasonography in endemic countries is generating important epidemiological data.[emedicine.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology There are four types of echinococcosis, of which the first two are the most common and therefore the most important, the third rare and the fourth extremely rare [ 2, 4, 5 ] : Cystic echinococcosis due to E. granulosus - this is also known[patient.info]
  • Pathophysiology In primary echinococcosis, metacestodes develop from oncospheres after peroral infection with E granulosus eggs. In secondary echinococcosis, larval tissue proliferates after being spread from the primary site of the metacestode.[emedicine.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention Good hand washing, treating infected dogs, and preventing dogs' access to slaughter houses discourage spread of the disease. Limiting the population of stray dogs has also been helpful.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Hongjun LI Springer, 26.11.2016 - 243 Seiten This book primarily summarizes the imaging characteristics and theory of parasitic disease, offering a clinical guide and practical approach to understanding, preventing and diagnosing parasitic disease.[books.google.de]
  • Prevent dogs from soiling the immediate environment. Prevent dogs from roaming or having access to raw sheep meat or viscera. All sheep carcasses should be disposed of correctly and immediately.[patient.info]
  • […] the hands after handling dogs. • Avoid contact with dog faeces. • Prevent dogs from roaming or having access to raw sheep meat or viscera. • All sheep carcasses should be disposed of correctly and immediately. 42.[slideshare.net]

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