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Echovirus

Echo Viruses


Presentation

  • In addition one of the children presented with hand, foot, and mouth disease, a syndrome that has not been previously associated with echovirus 7 infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical samples were inoculated in three different cell lines, and those which presented cytopathic effect (CPE), were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and "one step" RT-PCR.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the present study, nucleotide, amino acid, and phylogenetic analyses for all genomic regions were conducted. For the detection of recombination events, Simplot and bootscan analyses were carried out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Two neonates presented to our service with suspected intraabdominal surgical emergencies. Both subsequently were found to have hepatoadrenal necrosis due to overwhelming echoviral infection. Echovirus types 11 and 12 were isolated postmortem.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A fatal case of echovirus type 9 infection is reported in a 9 month old boy who presented with a fever and a macular rash followed by two focal seizures. Echovirus type 9 was isolated from lung tissue after seven days.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hyperthermia
  • The pattern of illness in the neonatal period was diphasic, marked by hyperthermia and the occurrence of seizures. Echovirus was recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Diarrhea
  • Clinical manifestations of neonatal echovirus type 18 infections include a nonspecific febrile illness, diarrhea, and meningitis with or without exanthem.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract An infant girl was born apparently well one week after her mother had had a mild illness with chills, fever, and diarrhea. On the third day of life, the infant became ill and died four days later with necrotizing hepatitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At the time of the isolation of the viruses the diseases they caused were not known, hence the term “orphan,” but it is now known that they cause many different types of human disease, especially viral meningitis , diarrhea, and various respiratory diseases[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • At the time of the isolation of the viruses the diseases they caused were not known, hence the term “orphan,” but it is now known that they cause many different types of human disease, especially viral meningitis, diarrhea, and various respiratory diseases[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Meanwhile, vomiting occurred in majority of the patients and diarrhea in parts of them. White blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exceeded normal range in all patients. Protein levels in CSF were above normal range in half of the patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Left Ventricular Dysfunction
  • Echovirus 7 infection associated with encephalomyelitis could be fatal due to indirect involvement of the heart resulting in severe left ventricular dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tremor
  • In the course of a prolonged upper respiratory-tract infection, the patient developed muscular hypotonia, resting tremor, ataxia, sleepiness, hyperaesthesia, and indistinct speech.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Altered Mental Status
  • Some patients also showed cold symptoms, sore throat, altered mental status, and seizures. We did not observe a higher fatality rate in children with E6 or E30 infection. Most of the patients recovered uneventfully.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Resting Tremor
  • In the course of a prolonged upper respiratory-tract infection, the patient developed muscular hypotonia, resting tremor, ataxia, sleepiness, hyperaesthesia, and indistinct speech.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Cholesterol Increased
  • Loading of lipid starved cells with cholesterol increased infection to some extent but could not completely restore EV1 infection to control levels.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
White Matter Lesions
  • A case of fatal encephalitis with white matter lesions caused by echovirus 18 is described, and it highlights the role of EV CNS infection as a potential cause of leukoencephalitis in infants.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Importantly, EGF treatment increased EV1 infection and increased cell viability during infection. Simultaneous EV1 and EGF treatment seemed to moderately enhance phosphorylation of protein kinase C α.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Based on IVIg treatment failure, we predict that one of these factors could be immune related.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and accumulation of lanosterol after ketoconazole treatment inhibited uptake of collagen, virus and clustered integrin, and prevented formation of multivesicular bodies and virus infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising novel form of cancer treatment, but the therapeutic efficiency needs improvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He received a high-dose steroid treatment combined with intravenous gamma -globulin. His visual recovery was good, and there was no sign of a primary demyelinating disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Older children and adults have a better prognosis. Myocarditis is the most frequent complication in adults. Echovirus, like the other Enteroviruses Coxsackievirus A and B, typically causes a mild, nonspecific illness with a low fever.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] immunosuppressed status exposure to others with echovirus public swimming pool Pathogenesis echovirus binds to decay-accelerating factor, a receptor the virus then replicates in Peyer’s patches it travels to regional lymph nodes and central nervous system Prognosis[step1.medbullets.com]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) People who have the less severe types of illness should recover completely without treatment. Infections of organs such as the heart may cause severe disease and can be deadly.[nicklauschildrens.org]

Etiology

  • Thirty-four samples which were positive for enterovirus were subject to group-specific PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis to identify the etiological agent of the outbreak.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the primary etiologic agents that cause aseptic meningitis outbreaks may provide valuable information regarding the prevention and management of aseptic meningitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A molecular epidemiology study of 115 E-30 strains was performed to characterize the genetic features of the etiologic agent of the 2011 aseptic meningitis outbreak.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Among them, Echovirus 30 (E30) is described as the main etiological agent of many outbreaks and sporadic cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To identify the etiologic agent, specimens were tested by cell culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Pathogenic examination confirmed that the outbreak is caused by E30.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • KEYWORDS: Enterovirus; Germany; Lineages; Meningitis; Molecular epidemiology; RNA-sequencing; Recogroups; Recombination MeSH terms, Substance MeSH terms Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology Child Child, Preschool Disease Outbreaks* Echovirus Infections/epidemiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These marked differences in recombination dynamics matched epidemiological patterns of periodic epidemic cycles of 2 to 3 (E9) and 5 to 6 (E30) years and the longer-term endemic pattern of E11 infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Recently, EV aseptic meningitis outbreaks have been reported across Europe, but, in Italy, knowledge of recent EV molecular epidemiology is very limited.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Surveillance for polioviruses and other EVs is therefore important as a public health measure both for patient management and epidemiological studies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These two enteroviruses are frequently observed in co-circulation, an epidemiological pattern that is prerequisite for the occurrence of dual infections, which can lead to recombination between co-infecting virus strains.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • For the prevention of viral escape, multiple short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) will have to be employed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Replacement therapy using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations in people with antibody deficiencies is effective in preventing the majority of common bacterial and viral infections, yet echovirus break-through infections have occurred[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The measures taken to prevent further spread of infection with special reference to the use of human normal immunoglobulin are described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention The predominantly mild symptoms and the ubiquitous nature of these infections, means that preventative measures are not usually necessary or recommended. Back to Top[hps.scot.nhs.uk]
  • In conclusion, this study demonstrates that bLf may have a role in the prevention of human gastrointestinal virus infection under physiological conditions and that food containing bLf may protect against infection in vivo.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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