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Echovirus Infection

Enterovirus Echo Infection


Presentation

  • Author information 1 Special Care Baby Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. weitzjb@gmail.com Abstract We present a case of non-immune hydrops fetalis presenting acutely in the third trimester caused by echovirus infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To our knowledge, this is a previously unreported presentation of acute echovirus infection in an immunocompetent adult.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Generalized Disease of the Newborn Neonates often present with an illness resembling bacterial sepsis, with fever, irritability, and lethargy.[doctorslounge.com]
  • In a noticeable number of the children, maternal neutralizing antibodies were most probably present at the time of infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present 2 infants with severe Echovirus 11 infections. A 3.5-month-old died within 24 hours of shock and probably myocarditis. The other, 6-days old, presented with meningitis, hepatitis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • Generalized Disease of the Newborn Neonates often present with an illness resembling bacterial sepsis, with fever, irritability, and lethargy.[doctorslounge.com]
  • Common symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, and weakness.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Fever, intestinal infection and skin rash symptoms can be accompanied by other infectious disease symptoms depending on the severity of your infection.[healthblurbs.com]
  • ECHO vi·rus an enterovirus from a large group of unrelated viruses belonging to the Picornaviridae, isolated from humans; although many inapparent infections occur, certain serotypes are associated with fever and aseptic meningitis, and some appear to[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Abstract A full-term, healthy male neonate was delivered by caesarian section to a 26-year-old primigravida woman who had a history of fever and upper respiratory tract infection.[nature.com]
Weakness
  • Common symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, and weakness.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] serotypes ( 1-9, 11-27, 29-30) SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Most infections are subclinical; clinical manifestations vary from mild to lethal and acute to chronic; associated with aseptic meningitis (mostly serotypes 2,5,6,7 and 9), muscle weakness[msdsonline.com]
  • Enteroviruses can also produce the Guillian-Barr é syndrome, which involves weakness and paralysis of the extremities and even the muscles of respiration.[encyclopedia.com]
  • One additional complication is the post-polio syndrome in which weakness suddenly worsens many years or even decades after the initial illness. This can be accompanied by pain and general fatigue.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
  • It may lead to weakness and deterioration of the muscles and sometimes paralysis. * hepatitis A (heh-puh-TIE-tis) is an inflammation of the liver that is caused by an infection with the hepatitis A virus, * feces (FEE-seez) is the excreted waste from[humanillnesses.com]
Movement Disorder
  • Pharyngitis and other symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection are often present. [8] Complications such as febrile seizures, lethargy, coma, and movement disorders are reported in 5%-10% of cases and may overlap with an encephalitis-type illness[emedicine.medscape.com]
Movement Disorder
  • Pharyngitis and other symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection are often present. [8] Complications such as febrile seizures, lethargy, coma, and movement disorders are reported in 5%-10% of cases and may overlap with an encephalitis-type illness[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sore Throat
  • Herpangina Herpangina is usually caused by coxsackievirus A and presents as acute-onset fever, sore throat, dysphagia, and grayish-white papulovesicular lesions on an erythematous base that ulcerate.[doctorslounge.com]
  • Sore throat and dysphagia are the prominent symptoms and precede the appearance of the oral lesions.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • throat , bronchitis , bronchiolitis Echovirus respiratory tract infections will cause similar symptoms to those of rhinovirus , adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus .[healthblurbs.com]
  • If an infected person does develop symptoms, they’re typically mild upper-respiratory symptoms, such as: a cough a sore throat flu-like symptoms a rash Other common symptoms include croup, which is breathing difficulty coupled with a barking cough.[healthline.com]
  • However, it is now known that echoviruses can cause a number of different diseases, including rashes, diarrhea, respiratory infections (such as the common cold, sore throat, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis), muscle inflammation, meningitis, encephalitis[medicinenet.com]
Cough
  • If an infected person does develop symptoms, they’re typically mild upper-respiratory symptoms, such as: a cough a sore throat flu-like symptoms a rash Other common symptoms include croup, which is breathing difficulty coupled with a barking cough.[healthline.com]
  • Respiratory illness Echovirus, similar to many enteroviruses, may be associated with pyrexial illness (the so-called summer grippe), with sore throat, cough, or coryza. Echovirus 11 can be associated with croup.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • It is a good idea to cover the mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing and to avoid contact with other people who are coughing and sneezing.[humanillnesses.com]
  • Symptoms depend on the site of infection and may include: Croup (breathing difficulty and harsh cough) Mouth sores Skin rashes Sore throat Exams and Tests Because the illness is often mild and has no specific treatment, testing for echovirus is often[nicklauschildrens.org]
  • Symptoms depend on the site of infection and may include: Croup (breathing difficulty and harsh cough) Mouth sores Skin rashes Sore throat Chest pain if the infection affects the heart muscle or sac-like covering around the heart ( pericarditis ) Severe[medlineplus.gov]
Common Cold
  • cold , sore throat , bronchitis , bronchiolitis Echovirus respiratory tract infections will cause similar symptoms to those of rhinovirus , adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus .[healthblurbs.com]
  • An example of a rhinovirus is the common cold. The name Echoviru s is derived from the name “enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) virus.”[healthline.com]
  • However, it is now known that echoviruses can cause a number of different diseases, including rashes, diarrhea, respiratory infections (such as the common cold, sore throat, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis), muscle inflammation, meningitis, encephalitis[medicinenet.com]
  • An Enteric Cytopathic Human Orphan virus or ECHOvirus is a type of RNA-virus (a similar structure to the common cold ). The virus enters the body through the digestive tract, replicates in the intestines, and then spreads to the rest of the body.[house.wikia.com]
  • Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu and warts. They also cause severe illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, smallpox, and Ebola. Viruses are like hijackers.[icdlist.com]
Pharyngitis
  • Symptoms include elevated temperature, pharyngitis, and dysphagia. It is commonly observed in summer outbreaks involving younger children, often younger than 10 years, and less common in adolescents and young adults.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Echovirus pathogens can cause a broad range of health conditions and symptoms, like: croup diarrhea myositis paralysis herpangina pneumonia pericarditis pleurodynia myocarditis encephalitis neonatal sepsis viral meningitis viral pharyngitis respiratory[healthblurbs.com]
  • These patients were afflicted consecutively with febrile illnesses, and ECHO 9 virus was isolated from the pharyngeal secretions of both patients.[annals.org]
  • In addition to tissue samples such as brain, lung, liver, lymph nodes, and heart muscle, other samples including feces, intestinal contents, intestinal wall, cerebrospinal fluid, cutaneous vesicle fluid, and pharyngeal swab may be collected for viral[nature.com]
  • Poliovirus is spread via oral fecal transmission, or more rarely by pharyngeal spread. Ninety percent of infections are asymptomatic. Enterovirus infections are highly prevalent worldwide.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
Dyspnea
  • Symptoms consist of fever with dyspnea (shortness of breath) and chest pain. Arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarction have also been reported. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (eye) can be caused by enteroviruses.[getwellstaywellathome.com]
Vomiting
  • Echovirus 30 was isolated from the case who vomited into the pool and from six other cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Nausea and vomiting are also common. Pleurodynia (Bornholm Disease) Patients with pleurodynia present with an acute onset of fever and spasms of pleuritic chest or upper abdominal pain.[doctorslounge.com]
  • Viral meningitis may cause the following symptoms: a fever chills nausea vomiting a severe sensitivity to light a headache a stiff or rigid neck Viral meningitis usually isn’t life-threatening, but it can be so serious that you need to be hospitalized[healthline.com]
  • Herpangina begins abruptly with fevers as high as 104 F and is associated with nonpersistent vomiting, myalgia, and headache. Sore throat and dysphagia are the prominent symptoms and precede the appearance of the oral lesions.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • In general, enteroviruses cause febrile illnesses, which are often accompanied by a viral exanthem, vomiting, diarrhea, and malaise.[pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu]
Abdominal Pain
  • Pleurodynia (Bornholm Disease) Patients with pleurodynia present with an acute onset of fever and spasms of pleuritic chest or upper abdominal pain. Chest pain is more frequent in adults, and abdominal pain is more common in children.[doctorslounge.com]
  • Coxsackie viruses cause sore throat or fever with chest or abdominal pains.[britannica.com]
  • Pleurodynia: Pleurodynia is typified by the abrupt onset of chest and abdominal pain and spasms. Commonly caused by coxsackie A and echoviruses, this is more common in teens and adults. Most people have symptoms for 4-6 days.[pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu]
  • Although some children with enteroviral infections may have no signs and symptoms, other youngsters can develop a high fever as well as a wide range of other symptoms, including a sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, skin eruptions, eye inflammation[healthychildren.org]
  • Most people have a high temperature (fever), and you might also have headache, generally aching muscles, cough, sore throat, abdominal pain or diarrhoea.[patient.info]
Upper Abdominal Pain
  • Pleurodynia (Bornholm Disease) Patients with pleurodynia present with an acute onset of fever and spasms of pleuritic chest or upper abdominal pain. Chest pain is more frequent in adults, and abdominal pain is more common in children.[doctorslounge.com]
Acute Abdomen
  • Pain may also involve abdominal muscles and mimic acute abdomen. Major epidemics have occurred at infrequent 10- to 20-year intervals. It typically affects older adults, with children having a milder course.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Chest Pain
  • Common symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, and weakness.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Chest pain is more frequent in adults, and abdominal pain is more common in children. Myocarditis and Pericarditis Enteroviruses are estimated to cause up to one-third of cases of acute myocarditis.[doctorslounge.com]
  • When to Call Your Pediatrician Call your pediatrician if your child complains of neck pain, chest pain, difficulty breathing, listlessness, or lethargy.[healthychildren.org]
  • Symptoms depend on the site of infection and may include: Croup (breathing difficulty and harsh cough) Mouth sores Skin rashes Sore throat Chest pain if the infection affects the heart muscle or sac-like covering around the heart ( pericarditis ) Severe[medlineplus.gov]
  • Symptoms Symptoms depend on the site of infection and may include: Croup (breathing difficulty and harsh cough) Mouth sores Skin rashes Sore throat Chest pain if the infection affects the heart muscle or sac-like covering around the heart ( pericarditis[ufhealth.org]
Hydrops Fetalis
  • Author information 1 Special Care Baby Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. weitzjb@gmail.com Abstract We present a case of non-immune hydrops fetalis presenting acutely in the third trimester caused by echovirus infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Eruptions
  • Rubelliform eruption ( rash looks like rubella ): E2 Morbilliform eruption ( rash looks like measles ): E6, E11, E25 Petechiae (tiny purple spots or purpura ): E11, E19 Punctate macular eruption : E19 A vesicular eruption (blisters): E11 Eczema coxsackium[dermnetnz.org]
  • Zoster-like eruption due to echovirus 6. Am J Dis Child 1979; 133 : 283–4. 21 Foreman RE, Guiterrez A. Aseptic meningitis associated with echovirus type 6 and 9 infections in Carlsbad, New Mexico.[nature.com]
  • Although some children with enteroviral infections may have no signs and symptoms, other youngsters can develop a high fever as well as a wide range of other symptoms, including a sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, skin eruptions, eye inflammation[healthychildren.org]
Myalgia
  • Fever and myalgias with clinical defervescence followed by reappearance of fever and headache herald the onset of meningitis, similar to what is observed in poliomyelitis. Meningismus, when present, varies from mild to severe.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Other names for Bornholm disease are epidemic pleurodynia or epidemic myalgia. Bornholm disease symptoms The main symptom is pain in the lower part of the chest (pleurodynia) or the upper part of the tummy (abdomen).[patient.info]
Meningism
  • […] pl. echovi·ruses Any of various enteroviruses of the gastrointestinal tract associated with certain diseases, such as viral meningitis, mild respiratory infections, and severe diarrhea in newborns.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Echoviral meningitis may have a biphasic pattern. Fever and myalgias with clinical defervescence followed by reappearance of fever and headache herald the onset of meningitis, similar to what is observed in poliomyelitis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Aseptic Meningitis and Encephalitis Enteroviruses are the cause of up to 90% of cases of aseptic meningitis in children and young adults in which an etiologic agent can be identified.[doctorslounge.com]
  • [Article in Hebrew] Abstract Infection with Echovirus 11 is mostly asymptomatic, but it may cause a wide variety of clinical diseases, from gastroenteritis to serious diseases such as meningitis and myocarditis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Viral Meningitis A less common symptom is viral meningitis, which is an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.[healthline.com]
Headache
  • Abstract Forty-six people became ill with vomiting, diarrhoea and headache within days of an outdoor swimming pool opening for the summer season in a small seaside village. During the weekend of the outbreak, 185 tickets to the pool had been sold.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fever and myalgias with clinical defervescence followed by reappearance of fever and headache herald the onset of meningitis, similar to what is observed in poliomyelitis. Meningismus, when present, varies from mild to severe.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Patients with aseptic meningitis typically present with an acute onset of fever, chills, headache, photophobia, and pain on eye movement. Nausea and vomiting are also common.[doctorslounge.com]
  • Viral meningitis may cause the following symptoms: a fever chills nausea vomiting a severe sensitivity to light a headache a stiff or rigid neck Viral meningitis usually isn’t life-threatening, but it can be so serious that you need to be hospitalized[healthline.com]
  • Symptoms include fever, muscle pain, sore throat, gastrointestinal distress, and headache. Abdominal discomfort may also be reported in some patients. Enteroviruses are by far the most common causes of aseptic meningitis in children.[getwellstaywellathome.com]
Seizure
  • Symptoms include lethargy, drowsiness, personality changes, seizures, paresis, and coma.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] meningitis distinguishing factor CSF with decreased glucose and increased protein Treatment Management approach mainstay of treatment is supportive care Conservative supportive care indication all patients modalities hemodynamic support Complications Seizures[medbullets.com]
  • CASE REPORT A full-term boy appropriate for his gestational age was born via caesarian section to a 26-year-old G 1 P 0 Latin American woman who had a medical history of a well-controlled seizure disorder for which she was receiving carbamazepine.[nature.com]
Lethargy
  • Symptoms include lethargy, drowsiness, personality changes, seizures, paresis, and coma.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Generalized Disease of the Newborn Neonates often present with an illness resembling bacterial sepsis, with fever, irritability, and lethargy.[doctorslounge.com]
  • When to Call Your Pediatrician Call your pediatrician if your child complains of neck pain, chest pain, difficulty breathing, listlessness, or lethargy.[healthychildren.org]
Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported rarely in patients infected with echovirus serotypes 6, 7, [20] and 22. Transverse myelitis has been reported with echovirus 2, 5, 18, [21] 19, 25, and 30 [22].[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • Form a definitive diagnosis and create the best treatment plans possible using evidence-based recommendations and expert guidance from world authorities.[books.google.de]
  • This is because Echovirus infections are usually very mild, and there’s no real treatment available.[healthline.com]
  • It recovered after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Echovirus 11 may cause life-threatening infections in small infants. Pediatricians should be alert to the special characteristics of this disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Since no specific antiviral drug is available and echovirus tends to resolve on its own, any necessary treatment focuses on palliative care of your fever , intestinal infection and skin rash symptoms.[healthblurbs.com]
  • Special attention is given to the prevention and treatment of these diseases found in developing countries as well as the latest findings about new antimicrobial agents, gram-negative infections and their management, and recommendations for immunization[books.google.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis for neonates with enterovirus hepatitis and coagulopathy. Pediatr Infec Dis J. 2001;20:758–763. 2. Chen CA, Tsao PN, Chou HC, Hsieh WS, Huang LM. Severe echovirus 30 infection in twin neonates. J Formos Med Assoc. 2003;102:59–61. 3.[journals.lww.com]
  • Abnormal Bile Acid Metabolism and Neonatal Hemochromatosis: A Subset with Poor Prognosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1997;25(3):321-6. Shneider BL, Setchell KD, Whitington PF, Neilson KA, Suchy FJ.[ama.ba]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) People who have the less severe types of illness should recover completely without treatment. Infections of organs such as the heart may cause severe disease and can be deadly.[nicklauschildrens.org]
  • […] immunosuppressed status exposure to others with echovirus public swimming pool Pathogenesis echovirus binds to decay-accelerating factor, a receptor the virus then replicates in Peyer’s patches it travels to regional lymph nodes and central nervous system Prognosis[medbullets.com]

Etiology

  • Aseptic Meningitis and Encephalitis Enteroviruses are the cause of up to 90% of cases of aseptic meningitis in children and young adults in which an etiologic agent can be identified.[doctorslounge.com]
  • Laboratory results obtained showed a white blood cell count of 18.500/μL (31% segmented neutrophils, 20% band forms, 12% metamyelocytes), C-reactive protein (CPR) Potential indicators of an enteroviral etiology 1 include presentation during summer and[journals.lww.com]
  • Echovirus 13 has been confirmed as the etiologic agent for 33 of 75 cases. Reported by: N Krishna, MS, M Little, MPH, R Ratard, MD, Louisiana Office of Public Health. M Currier, MD, S Hand, Mississippi State Dept of Health.[cdc.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The epidemiologic features of type 22 echovirus infections with regard to age and seasonal distribution, contagiousness and a relative lack of protection by neutralizing antibodies differed from most enterovirus infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology of an Outbreak in a Maternity Unit of Infections with an Antigenic Variant of Echovirus 11. J Med Virol. 1982;9(2):81-91. Mulcahy DL, Hanlon MG, de Silva LM. A Report of a Spring-Summer Outbreak of Echovirus 11 Infection.[ama.ba]
  • Ehrnst, A. and Erikson, M. (1993): Epidemiological features of type 22 echovirus infection. Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 25, 275-281. Joki-Korpela, P. and Hyypia, T. (1998): Diagnosis and epidemiology of echovirus 22 infections. Clin. Infect.[www0.nih.go.jp]
  • Funding and Disclosures * From the Section of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine and the Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine. Aided by a grant from the National Foundation. We are indebted to Dr.[nejm.org]
  • Tesini, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry; Associate Hospital Epidemiology, Strong Memorial Hospital and Golisano Children's Hospital, University[msdmanuals.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Urea Cycle Disorders: Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Therapy. Adv Pediatr. 1996;43:127-70. Mazzella M, Cerone R, Bonacci W, Caruso U, Munnich A, Rustin P, et al.[ama.ba]

Prevention

  • Prevention The predominantly mild symptoms and the ubiquitous nature of these infections, means that preventative measures are not usually necessary or recommended. Back to Top[hps.scot.nhs.uk]
  • Infection with an Echovirus cannot be directly prevented, and there’s no vaccine available. It can be challenging to control the spread of the virus.[healthline.com]
  • Special attention is given to the prevention and treatment of these diseases found in developing countries as well as the latest findings about new antimicrobial agents, gram-negative infections and their management, and recommendations for immunization[books.google.com]
  • Babies may need preventative treatment (immunoglobulin) to help prevent complications. What is Bornholm disease? Bornholm disease is caused by an infection with a virus. This causes pain in the chest or tummy (abdomen), with flu-like symptoms.[patient.info]

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