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Ecstasy

N Methyl 3 4 Methylenedioxyamphetamine


Presentation

  • The second patient, a 20-month-old girl, had a more typical presentation with convulsions and hyperthermia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chills
  • But the user may also experience nausea, chills or involuntary teeth clenching. Muscles may cramp and vision may blur or be otherwise disturbed.[narconon.org]
  • You’re on a ship with plenty for the adults to do — sit back and chill at the Serenity Adult-Only Retreat and our rather relaxing spa, or sip back something chilled at RedFrog Rum Bar and BlueIguana Tequila Bar.[carnival.com]
  • Molly), pills, tablets • Powder, Crystal, liquid • Crushed or snorted • Occasionally smoked Increased motor activity, alertness, heart rate, blood pressure Muscle tension, tremors, teeth clenching, nausea, sweating Euphoria, empathy, reduced inhibition Chills[getsmartaboutdrugs.gov]
Fatigue
  • Primary motives for consuming ED with alcohol included increased alertness (59%), the taste (25%), to party for longer (23%) and to combat fatigue (16%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There are a number of potential negative consequences, but dehydrationand fatigue are among the most common.[natural-history-study.uq.edu.au]
  • Almost 60% of people who use ecstasy report withdrawal symptoms, including: fatigue loss of appetite depressed feelings trouble concentrating.[drugs.com]
Fever
  • This case illustrates the need to consider the possibility of accidental Ecstasy ingestion in the differential diagnosis of a child suffering from convulsions with fever.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] contentment delectation ecstasy enchantment felicity fruition gladness glee gratification hilarity jollity joy joyance mirth pleasure rapture relish satisfaction transport delirium noun. madness aberration ardor dementia derangement ecstasy enthusiasm fervor fever[thesaurus.com]
  • Acetylsalicylic acid Pain, fever, and inflammation Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), in the regular tablet form (immediate-release), is indicated to relieve pain, fever, and inflammation associated with many conditions, including the flu, the common...[drugbank.ca]
Rigor
  • Controlled studies with pharmaceutically pure MDMA are still needed to test these effects rigorously. The Author(s) 2015. KEYWORDS: MDMA; compassion; compassion-focused therapy; psychotherapy; self-criticism[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, selective pharmacological agents and molecular biological tools have only recently become available to rigorously evaluate these receptors as viable medication development targets.[doi.org]
  • “This is not a fringe subject, it’s careful, methodical, extremely rigorous science,” said Sessa. Others were less enthusiastic, however.[theguardian.com]
  • Admittedly, there are too many confounding variables to test this hypothesis in methodologically rigorous studies on humans.[mdma.net]
High Fever
  • The main clinical manifestations were hyponatremia, high fever, rhabdomyolysis, dehydration and metabolic acidosis accompanied by impaired liver and renal functions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nausea
  • However, several side effects have been described: headache, nausea, anorexia, xerostomia, insomnia, myalgia, trismus, and bruxism (2,3).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • But the user may also experience nausea, chills or involuntary teeth clenching. Muscles may cramp and vision may blur or be otherwise disturbed.[narconon.org]
Loss of Appetite
  • Almost 60 percent of people who use MDMA report withdrawal symptoms, including fatigue, loss of appetite, depressed feelings, and trouble concentrating.[crchealth.com]
  • Along with the side effects listed above, you might notice additional physical and mental effects, such as: Lethargy or fatigue Susceptibility to getting the common flu or cold Hemorrhaging Insomnia Memory loss Anxiety Paranoia Loss of appetite Rapid[americanaddictioncenters.org]
  • The long term effects of ecstasy generally include: Depression Drowsiness Muscle aches Loss of appetite Insomnia Loss of concentration Irritability.[drugaware.com.au]
Liver Fibrosis
  • Use of ecstasy and cocaine may cause chronic hepatitis leading to marked liver fibrosis, which may regress after withdrawal of both substances.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Bruxism
  • Dental manifestations include bruxism, increased incidence of caries, xerostomia and oral ulcers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Minor side-effects include trismus, tachycardia and bruxism.[academic.oup.com]
  • The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus.[doi.org]
Oral Ulcers
  • Dental manifestations include bruxism, increased incidence of caries, xerostomia and oral ulcers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypertension
  • He presented with fever and seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Urine amphetamine level was 2111 ng/mL. Treatment included rapid cooling, hydration, and support measures. Vital signs were regularly monitored.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tachycardia
  • He presented with fever and seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Urine amphetamine level was 2111 ng/mL. Treatment included rapid cooling, hydration, and support measures. Vital signs were regularly monitored.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Blurred Vision
  • Driving Ecstasy causes blurred vision and distorts perception, including judging distance. It gives you a false sense of confidence and energy, which may lead you to take risks, such as aggressive driving, and not be able to make quick decisions.[www2.courtinfo.ca.gov]
  • […] pills, tablets • Powder, Crystal, liquid • Crushed or snorted • Occasionally smoked Increased motor activity, alertness, heart rate, blood pressure Muscle tension, tremors, teeth clenching, nausea, sweating Euphoria, empathy, reduced inhibition Chills, blurred[getsmartaboutdrugs.gov]
  • Ecstasy increases heart rate and can cause dry mouth, clenched teeth, blurred vision, chills, sweating, or nausea. It can make some users feel anxious, confused, and paranoid, like someone is trying to hurt them or is plotting against them.[kidshealth.org]
  • MDMA users may experience other symptoms such as muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, faintness, and chills or sweating. In high doses, MDMA can interfere with the body’s ability to regulate temperature.[web.archive.org]
  • Physical symptoms such as muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, faintness, and chills or sweating.[ctclearinghouse.org]
Diplopia
  • Signs of intoxication include belligerence, assaultiveness, lethargy, psychomotor impairment, euphoria, impaired judgement, dizziness, nystagmus, blurred vision or diplopia, slurred speech, tremors, unsteady gait, hyperreflexia, muscle weakness, stupor[who.int]
Visual Hallucination
  • However, many of the effects are dose dependent, and auditory and/or visual hallucinations are not commonly observed.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Still another, DIPT, created no visual hallucinations but distorted the user's sense of pitch. Shulgin tested for activity by taking the chemicals himself.[nytimes.com]
  • ., 2012 ) and so drug-induced visual hallucinations remain poorly understood. Under normal conditions, activity in the visual cortex is driven by and thus anchored to visual input.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Depersonalization
  • A person who is a heavy and long-term ecstasy user may suffer depersonalization, defined as a state in which a person feels detached from themselves and that their thoughts and feelings are unreal or do not belong to them.[narconon.org]
  • It depersonalized the pain." To these psychedelic adventurers, Shulgin is a postmodern Prometheus bearing the gift of chemical enlightenment.[archive.wired.com]
  • Prolonged cognitive and behavioral effects may occur including poor memory recall, flashbacks, panic attacks, psychosis, and depersonalization due to serotonergic neuron damage and decreased serotonin production as a result of long-term use.[web.archive.org]
  • ‘Ecstasy’-induced psychotic depersonalization syndrome. Nervenarzt. 1993; 64 :478–480. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 14. Landabaso M.A., Iraurgi I., Jimenez-Lerma J.M., Calle R., Sanz J., Gutierrez-Fraile M.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pentazocine A synthetic opioid which can induce an acute psychosis characterized by nightmares, depersonalization, and visual hallucinations.[who.int]
Vaginal Discharge
Seizure
  • A single tablet was quickly retrieved intact from under her tongue, but within 5 min the child developed generalised tonic-clonic seizures requiring immediate transfer to hospital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Confusion
  • This resulted in severe confusion for a few days. The confusion was followed by persistent memory complaints and difficulties orientating in new surroundings.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The surge of serotonin caused by taking MDMA depletes the brain of this important chemical, however, causing negative after effects - including confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, and anxiety — that may occur soon after taking the drug[web.archive.org]
  • These changes can result in anxiety, depression, and confusion. Further symptoms of ecstasy use include poor performance on tests requiring memory or cognitive ability.[narconon.org]
  • Powder, Crystal, liquid • Crushed or snorted • Occasionally smoked Increased motor activity, alertness, heart rate, blood pressure Muscle tension, tremors, teeth clenching, nausea, sweating Euphoria, empathy, reduced inhibition Chills, blurred vision Confusion[getsmartaboutdrugs.gov]
Headache
  • However, several side effects have been described: headache, nausea, anorexia, xerostomia, insomnia, myalgia, trismus, and bruxism (2,3).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] touching Inability to regulate temperature Sharp increase in body temperature, hyperthermia, heatstroke Liver, kidney, and cardiovascular system failure Perceptual changes, anxiety, jaw-clenching, dry mouth, and appetite changes Blood pressure increases Headaches[www2.courtinfo.ca.gov]
Insomnia
  • However, several side effects have been described: headache, nausea, anorexia, xerostomia, insomnia, myalgia, trismus, and bruxism (2,3).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The long term effects of ecstasy generally include: Depression Drowsiness Muscle aches Loss of appetite Insomnia Loss of concentration Irritability.[drugaware.com.au]
  • Physically, it can: enhance your feelings and sensations make you grind or clench your teeth make you feel light-headed, hot and sweaty increase your heart rate and breathing rate cause dehydration cause insomnia.[au.reachout.com]
Hyperactivity
  • In 1937 Charles Bradley discovered the contradictory effects amphetamines have on hyperactive children. Rather than stimulating hyperactive children, amphetamines produce a calming effect.[natural-history-study.uq.edu.au]
  • However, hyperactivity induced by MDMA is different from that induced by other psychostimulants, such as amphetamine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] amphetamines and its derivatives (including methamphetamines and 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), nicotine, caffeine and khat, and touch upon the issues of prescribed substances (anti-depressants, weight control medications, attention-deficit hyperactivity[doi.org]

Workup

  • All three patients underwent extensive workup including catheter angiography that did not demonstrate aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, or vasculitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It then cleans up quite nicly with acid base workup, oil bath distill then They now have tried all the mentioned crystals methods posted here, but seem to prefer the acatone, acid method.[erowid.org]
Hyponatremia
  • ., hyponatremia). Although syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone has been recognized as a major mechanism for MDMA-associated hyponatremia, other factors (e.g., MDMA-induced polydipsia) have also been proposed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Consuming isotonic or electrolyte containing fluids helps prevent hyponatremia which is caused by low sodium, and hyponatremia has been the cause of some MDMA-related deaths in women.[rollsafe.org]
Liver Biopsy
  • Liver biopsy showed architectural distortion caused by bridging fibrosis, proliferation of cholangioles, and lesions of active interface hepatitis. Other causes of acute and chronic liver disease were excluded.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • In addition, the treatment approach is complicated by the lack of documented studies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There are no specific medical treatments for MDMA addiction. Some people seeking treatment for MDMA addiction have found behavioral therapy to be helpful.[drugabuse.gov]
  • The FDA permitted researchers to move forward with clinical trials exploring the drug as a treatment for PTSD.[scientificamerican.com]

Prognosis

  • The clinical course and the prognosis of the cases may differ.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Conclusions Given this record of impaired memory and clinically significant levels of depression, impulsiveness, and sleep disturbance, the prognosis for the current generation of ecstasy users is a major cause for concern.[dx.doi.org]
  • Lawn, Amphetamine‐associated seizures: Clinical features and prognosis, Epilepsia, 52, 2, (401-404), (2011). L. Hondebrink, J. Meulenbelt, R.G.D.M. van Kleef, M. van den Berg and R.H.S.[doi.org]

Etiology

  • A better understanding of the etiology of hyperthermia after MDMA use is needed so that appropriate harm-reduction measures can be developed and instituted.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Survival analysis and complementary log-log regression were used to model hazard rates and etiology of initiation with time-varying covariates.[web.archive.org]
  • Non-ethanol components of alcoholic beverages may be involved in the etiology.[who.int]

Epidemiology

  • BACKGROUND: Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a novel approach in drug use epidemiology which aims to monitor the extent of use of various drugs in a community.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Epidemiology of Ecstasy in Australia What is known about ecstasy in Australia? There were three Australian studies conducted in the early 1990s, all with very different approaches. The first one in 1990 looked at one hundred users.[web.archive.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • CASE REPORT: We present a case of MDMA-associated acute severe hyponatremia and cerebral edema in a young female, and analyze the underlying pathophysiology, the therapeutic strategy, and the course of disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There are still many unanswered questions regarding the pathophysiology and pharmacology of the acute toxic effects of MDMA.[academic.oup.com]
  • Acute toxic effects of ‘Ecstasy’ (MDMA) and related compounds: overview of pathophysiology and clinical management. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96:678–685. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 28. Davis WM, Hatoum HT, Waters IW.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • KEYWORDS: African Americans; HIV; ecstasy; harm reduction; molly; prevention[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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