Ectrodactyly is a malformation of the hands and possibly affects the feet.
The clinical picture is variable and manifests into two forms. Patients with lobster claw type lack the third digit , which is replaced by a cleft. Additionally, the fingers on either side are typically webbed together. Both hands are involved and the feet are frequently affected.
- Retinal Pigmentation
EEM syndrome differs from other ectrodactly syndromes by the characteristic findings in the ocular fundus showing extensive retinochoroidal atrophy with diffuse retinal pigmentation and mild arteriolar attenuation at the posterior pole. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Conjunctival Hyperemia
RESULTS: Slit-lamp examination revealed conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and corneal leucoma with neovascularization. Although the Schirmer test values were within normal limits, the BUT value was 0 s in both eyes. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Metacarpal Hypoplasia
Other lesions noted in affected limbs included digit contracture, digit aplasia, metacarpal hypoplasia and metacarpal fusions. Bilateral involvement was noted in only one of 14 cases. [doi.org]
hypoplasia with stable CMC joint Reconstruction 3B Metacarpal hypoplasia with unstable CMC joint Pollicization 4 Rudimentary phalanges, thumb attached by a skin bridge Pollicization 5 Aplasia of thumb Pollicization The critical determinant of the reconstructive [emedicine.medscape.com]
- Disorder of Digit
This type is associated with a variety of generalized conditions, as follows: Arthrogryposis Craniofacial disorders Orofacial digital syndrome Craniocarpotarsal dystrophy (Freeman-Sheldon syndrome) Oculodentodigital dysplasia Oculopalatodigital syndrome [emedicine.medscape.com]
The clinical assessment consists of the history, physical exam, and the appropriate studies if needed. The features are present at birth and therefore the deformity is apparent. Due to the overlap with other conditions, the newborn will be examined thoroughly to determine if there are other congenital anomalies present.
The use of ultrasonography for a survey of the fetal anatomy  can detect the abnormality. Additionally, prenatal tests such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) will confirm the diagnosis.
Patients with ectrodactyly should be managed by a team of pediatricians, orthopedic and plastic surgeons, as well as other professionals. Treatment is individualized based on the specific physical features and disabilities. Surgical correction of the deformity is commonly performed  to improve function and appearance. Surgeons aim to close the cleft and rearrange the bones, skin, and tissues. The repair may require subsequent reconstructive procedures.
Early physical and occupational therapy will benefit the child. Also, the use of prosthetics may be helpful.
The condition is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern  although autosomal recessive, sex-linked, and sporadic mutations have been observed. The genetic abnormalities involve a specific region containing homeobox genes DLX5 and DLX6, which are developmental regulatory genes located on chromosome 7 .
The prevalence of ectrodactyly is approximately 1 in 8,500 to 1 in 25,000 newborns .
Limb development occurs during the 4th week through the 8th week of the gestational period . Through the extensive paddle, plate, and rotational stages, limbs form and grow. Future hands and feet emerge from plates on limb buds while digital rays represent future finger and toes. Normally, cells between rays will undergo apoptosis to free the digits. In the absence of this function, the digits will not separate and hence ectrodactyly presents.
This condition cannot be prevented however genetic counseling is offered to patients and family members.
Ectrodactyly is a rare congenital abnormality of the limb, which is characterized by the absence of the intermediate finger and the presence of a hand cleft. The deformity resembles a lobster claw  . Ectrodactyly can develop as part of a syndrome or in isolation. The diagnosis is achieved based on the physical features and history. This condition can also be detected prenatally with the widespread use of ultrasonography. Treatment may include reconstructive surgery and physical /occupational therapy.
Ectrodactyly is a condition in which the hands and feet are not properly developed as there is usually a missing third finger and cleft in the hand, which looks like a lobster claw. This condition may be inherited from an affected parent. The diagnosis is apparent in a newborn due to obvious deformity. The doctor will perform a complete exam to determine if other abnormalities are present. The treatment is usually surgery to correct the appearance and improve the function. Physical and occupational therapy is important as well.
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