Eczema vaccinatum is a very rare, but potentially life-threatening reaction seen after exposure to vaccinia virus which is used for smallpox vaccination. It can be either a consequence of vaccination or can occur after direct contact with vaccinated individuals. A history of atopic dermatitis is predisposes to this disorder. The appearance of vesicles and pustules, as well as systemic symptoms such as fever and malaise, constitute the clinical presentation. Clinical and microbiological studies are needed to make the diagnosis.
As the World Health Organization (WHO) had declared the eradication of smallpox in 1979 after successful global immunization, the use of vaccinia virus in the prophylaxis of humans was not carried out until the beginning of the 21st century, when smallpox was considered to be a possible biological weapon  . Consequently, the United States and several other countries have reintroduced vaccination of military personnel and certain at-risk individuals, which led to reports of various complications and adverse reactions, one of them being eczema vaccinatum    . Although seen only in a handful of cases, patients develop eczema vaccinatum shortly after vaccination or after direct contact with recently vaccinated individuals     . Studies have confirmed that the main predisposing factor (and a contraindication) for this cutaneous disorder is the presence of atopic dermatitis (or some other type of dermatitis)     . The abrupt onset of vesicles, pustules, and erosions in same stages approximately 3-14 days after being in contact with the vaccinia virus is the hallmark of eczema vaccinatum . Lesions that are seen on the skin are commonly superinfected (predominantly by Staphylococcus aureus), while corneal lesions may also develop, potentially leading to corneal ulceration and even blindness . Furthermore, fever, lymphadenopathy, and malaise can accompany skin lesions . In addition to cutaneous and ocular disorders, life-threatening subglottic edema is a possible complication , implying that early recognition is vital.
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The appearance of vesicles and pustules, as well as systemic symptoms such as fever and malaise, constitute the clinical presentation. Clinical and microbiological studies are needed to make the diagnosis. [symptoma.com]
Vaccinatum 2 3 4 5 Progressive Vaccinia 6 7 Enlarged Site vs PV Large Reaction Differentiation 8 Enlarged Site vs PV Large Reaction Differentiation 9 Progressive Vaccinia 10 Post-Vaccinial Encephalitis Diagnosis Cerebral or cerebellar dysfunction Headache Fever [slideplayer.com]
Princeton's WordNet (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition: eczema vaccinatum, Kaposi's varicelliform eruption (noun) a now rare complication of vaccinia superimposed on atopic dermatitis with high fever and generalized vesicles and papulovesicles Freebase [definitions.net]
Persons suffering from childhood eczema may develop another allergic condition later, most often hay fever or asthma. Cause and Treatment. Eczema is sometimes caused by an allergic sensitivity to foods such as milk, fish, or eggs. [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Русский (Russian) ಕನ್ನಡ (Kannada) 한국어 (Korean) עברית (Hebrew) Український (Ukrainian) اردو (Urdu) Magyar (Hungarian) मानक हिन्दी (Hindi) Indonesia (Indonesian) Italiano (Italian) தமிழ் (Tamil) Türkçe (Turkish) తెలుగు (Telugu) ภาษาไทย (Thai) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese [definitions.net]
A itchy, red, scaly rash lasting over 2 wks? Vaccinia immune globulin ( VIG ): only available from CDC but considered experimental, so needs IND protocol: T (404) 639-3356 EV is clear indication for urgent use. Early treatment may be life-saving. [hopkinsguides.com]
References Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00–B09, 050–059) DNA virus Herpesviridae Alpha HSV (Herpes simplex, Herpetic whitlow, Herpes gladiatorum, Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis, Herpetic sycosis, Neonatal [dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr]
Adverse reaction to cytokines · Bromoderma · Halogenoderma · Iododerma · Red man syndrome · Methotrexate-induced papular eruption unspecified agent: Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis · Bullous drug reaction · Drug-induced acne · Drug-induced angioedema [dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr]
Given the rare occurrence of eczema vaccinatum in clinical practice, the diagnosis may not be easy. For this reason, physicians must obtain a thorough patient history that will assess the course and progression of symptoms, the presence of preexisting skin diseases, and if family members or close relatives/friends (or the patient him/herself) have been recently vaccinated for smallpox. As military personnel are predominantly mentioned in the reports   , the patient's occupation (or their parents') should be evaluated. A detailed physical examination is equally important, as the abrupt onset of typical lesions has a very narrow differential diagnosis. Microbiological studies, however, are necessary to confirm eczema vaccinatum. Molecular methods that detect viral genetic material - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are recommended tests for identifying vaccinia virus in skin biopsy samples, swabs from the lesions or from the skin of an open vesicle  . Moreover, the specific finding of Guarnieri bodies (intracytoplasmic inclusions) on histological examination is useful in making the diagnosis . Thus, a microbiological investigation should be initiated as soon as clinical suspicion is raised.
[…] the treatment of orthopoxvirus infection. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
And Prevention Of Eczema Vaccinatum In Atopic Atopic Dermatitis Treatment Pictures Home Remedies Causes Generalized Vaccinia Progressive Vaccinia And Eczema Vaccinatum Smallpox Vaccination And Adverse Reactions Induction Treatment And Prevention Of Eczema [eczema-prevent.blogspot.com]
Early treatment can greatly improve the prognosis, as well as limit permanent skin damage. Related wiseGEEK Articles [wisegeek.com]
While it is a well known entity to the specially trained dermatologist and pediatrician, the average physician's knowledge of this disease is not commensurate with the importance of his potential rôle in its causation or with the relatively serious prognosis [annals.org]
The etiology is unknown, though the familial tendency is well documented. [nejm.org]
Professional Edition Eczema Symptoms And Diagnosis Everyday Health Dermatitis Wikipedia Atopic Dermatitis Practice Essentials Background Pathophysiology Eczema Symptoms And Diagnosis Everyday Health Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption Background Pathophysiology Etiology [eczema-prevent.blogspot.com]
Etiology The vaccinia virus cannot penetrate intact skin but can infect through any small breach in the integumen. T cell dysfunction in the skin of patients with eczema leads to a poorly controlled infection and spread of the virus. [dermatologyadvisor.com]
Weekly Epidemiological Record Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 50 (36), 313 - 314. [apps.who.int]
Author Affiliations * Instructor in epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health; district health officer, Massachusetts Department of Public Health. [nejm.org]
In each of these chapters, a short discussion of the epidemiology of the disease and the history of immun isation against it is followed by a description of the vaccine, its efficacy, contraindications to its use and future developments. [books.google.ro]
The epidemiology of atopic dermatitis. Clin Dermatol. 2003;21(2):109–115. doi:10.1016/S0738-081X(02)00360-7 [CrossRef] Horii K, Simon S, Liu D, Sharma V. [healio.com]
Despite much current research interest, the pathophysiology of these disorders and their optimum treatment remain uncertain. [books.google.ro]
Eczema Symptoms And Diagnosis Everyday Health Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption Background Pathophysiology Etiology Complicacoes Decorrentes Da Vacinacao Antivariolica A Eczema Rostrum Smallpox Vaccination Risk Considerations For Patients With Eczema Vaccinatum [eczema-prevent.blogspot.com]
We then discuss current concepts of the pathophysiology of AD, noting how defective skin barrier function, epidermal hyperplasia, and abnormal immune responses favor the spread of poxviral infection, and identify a number of unanswered questions about [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Two pathophysiologic mechanisms have been proposed to explain the increased propensity of persons with AD to develop bacterial and viiral infections. [grantome.com]
Of Eczema Vaccinatum In Atopic Atopic Dermatitis Treatment Pictures Home Remedies Causes Generalized Vaccinia Progressive Vaccinia And Eczema Vaccinatum Smallpox Vaccination And Adverse Reactions Induction Treatment And Prevention Of Eczema Vaccinatum [eczema-prevent.blogspot.com]
Author information 1 Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. [email protected] Abstract On March 3, 2007, a 2-year-old boy was hospitalized with eczema [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fact Sheet. Vaccine Reaction Images. CDC. Eczema vaccinatum. About. [en.wikipedia.org]
Special attention is given to the prevention and treatment of these diseases found in developing countries as well as the latest findings about new antimicrobial agents, gram-negative infections and their management, and recommendations for immunization [books.google.ro]
This image was created in 08/2003 and provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Allen W. Mathies, MD, John Leedom, MD/ California Emergency Preparedness Office (Calif/EPO), Immunization Branch. [imageenvision.com]
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