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Edema in Malnutrition

Edema Due to Improper Nutrition


Presentation

  • However, in the present study, Bilophila was not detected in any of the two groups of SAM children ( S1 Table ).[journals.plos.org]
  • WHO recommendations Children 6–59 months of age with severe acute malnutrition who have severe oedema ( ), even if they present with no medical complications and have appetite, should be admitted for inpatient care. ************* This is a summary of[who.int]
  • If a dent is seen or felt, pitting oedema is present. The examiner must press for at least 3 seconds and clearly see or feel a dent remaining after the pressure is released. Pitting oedema must be present on BOTH feet to be caused by malnutrition.[conflict.lshtm.ac.uk]
  • However, normally in marasmus, there is also dehydratation present, which balances the effects of decreased oncotic pressure.[biology.stackexchange.com]
  • Children presenting oedema must be referred to the closest health centre.[motherchildnutrition.org]
Swelling
  • If you experience malnutrition-related edema, seek immediate medical attention if the area where you experience swelling is painful, red or hot to the touch.[livestrong.com]
  • Patients with peripheral edema usually present with painless swelling of the lower legs. A residual indentation left by pressure on the site of the swelling indicates pitting edema.[amboss.com]
  • This can also lead to swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet.[progressivehealth.com]
  • Edema itself is usually a symptom of an underlying condition and can be noticed as swelling or puffiness of your face, hands, feet, legs, or around your eyes.[nativeremedies.com]
  • Oedema is a swelling caused by the accumulation of fluid in the body tissues and can be categorized as Mild ( ): oedema in both feet/ankles Moderate ( ): oedema in both feet plus lower legs, hands or lower arms Severe ( ): generalized oedema including[who.int]
Fatigue
  • This malnutrition type is often accompanied by other symptoms, such as muscle weakness, dizziness and unexplained fatigue. If you experience malnutrition-related edema, you must take steps to reduce the underlying cause while reducing the edema.[livestrong.com]
  • Symptoms include fatigue, skin spots, and bleeding from the mucous membranes. It used to occur mainly among sailors and in areas of famine, but can occur nowadays when people eat too many processed foods that lack nutrients.[diagnose-me.com]
  • Other symptoms include: Weakness of muscles and fatigue. The muscles of the body appear to waste away and may be left without adequate strength to carry out daily activities. Many people complain of tiredness all day and lack of energy.[news-medical.net]
  • Eventually, malnutrition may lead to fatigue; an increased risk of digestive, lung, and heart problems; an increased risk of pneumonia and other infections; anemia; muscle weakness; blood clots; bed sores; and depression.[fortherecordmag.com]
Inflammation
  • […] reduced fluid clearance due to compromised lymphatic vessels or lymph nodes Etiology Primary lymphedema (rare) Congenital anomaly with poorly developed lymphatic vessels Characteristic finding in Turner syndrome Secondary lymphedema Tumors, operations, inflammation[amboss.com]
  • Conditions That May Lead to Edema View Table Favorite Table Download (.pdf) CHAPTER PREVIEW: Conditions That May Lead to Edema T Trauma COMMON Not applicable UNCOMMON Lymphedemas: • Secondary lymphedema 790 Thoracic outlet syndrome 794 RARE Not applicable I Inflammation[mhmedical.com]
  • Organ-specific An edema will occur in specific organs as part of inflammations, tendinitis or pancreatitis, for instance. Certain organs develop edema through tissue specific mechanisms.[danae.info]
  • Other Diseases Other diseases that can cause or worsen edema include diabetes (due to complications such as kidney failure, liver failure and loss of proteins), arthritis (due to inflammation in the joint caused by the rupture of the synovial membrane[progressivehealth.com]
  • Concordantly, it has been suggested that pathogenic overload leads to persistent enteric inflammation, increased permeability and nutrient malabsorption [ 12 ].[journals.plos.org]
Underweight
  • They are underweight for age. An affected child may at first appear tired, irritable and disinterested in play. The child fails to grow and loses muscle mass.[realhopeforhaiti.org]
  • Signs and Symptoms Symptoms include: weight loss / being very underweight stunted growth water retention ( edema ), which often hides muscle loss tight skin caused by edema unhealthy skin unhealthy hair that looks wiry, stiff, unkempt, can come out easily[diagnose-me.com]
  • .  By 18-23 months, during weaning, 30% are severely stunted, 1/5th are underweight. 6.[slideshare.net]
Turkish
  • He is lead author on the textbook The New Public Health (three editions in 1999, 2005, 2014); NPH has been translated into Russian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Moldovan, Romanian, Mongolian, Georgian and Turkish languages.[books.google.com]
Hypertension
  • Anti-hypertensives (Nifedipine, Diazoxide) Dialysis in severe cases Treat underlying cause 3. Chronic liver disease: IV albumin with diuretics for severe oedema Liver failure management 4.[epomedicine.com]
  • Portal hypertension in cirrhosis producing ascites b. Clinical examples of decreased vascular plasma oncotic pressure (hypoalbuminemia) i. Malnutrition with decreased protein intake ii. Cirrhosis with decreased synthesis of albumin iii.[howmed.net]
  • High blood pressure (Hypertension), liver, kidney and thyroid diseases can cause edema Injuries Being largely overweight or obese. Excess weight can put added pressure on the knee and ankle joints and the lower limbs.[nativeremedies.com]
Muscle Weakness
  • This malnutrition type is often accompanied by other symptoms, such as muscle weakness, dizziness and unexplained fatigue. If you experience malnutrition-related edema, you must take steps to reduce the underlying cause while reducing the edema.[livestrong.com]
  • Eventually, malnutrition may lead to fatigue; an increased risk of digestive, lung, and heart problems; an increased risk of pneumonia and other infections; anemia; muscle weakness; blood clots; bed sores; and depression.[fortherecordmag.com]
  • . - Neuromuscular symptoms like weakness, paresthesias, cramps, respiratory muscle weakness – altered membrane potential due to electrolyte imbalance. - Cardiac failure, rhabdomyolysis, altered mental status, confusion, coma, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia[slideshare.net]
Hydrops Fetalis
  • Hydrops fetalis is a condition of the fetus characterized by an accumulation of fluid, or edema, in at least two fetal compartments.[danae.info]
Dizziness
  • This malnutrition type is often accompanied by other symptoms, such as muscle weakness, dizziness and unexplained fatigue. If you experience malnutrition-related edema, you must take steps to reduce the underlying cause while reducing the edema.[livestrong.com]
  • Severe anemia can cause extreme lethargy, headaches, dizziness, and shortness of breath. An anemic person may also display symptoms of pica (craving substances that are not food, such as soil.) Scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C.[diagnose-me.com]
  • […] exertion or at rest Calf pain and edema after trauma Edematous body part with red streaks Edema involving the face or arm that is present with discoloration of the chest, arm, or face; loss of carotid pulses; dysphagia; wheezing; chest pain; headaches; dizziness[mhmedical.com]
  • Irritability and dizziness Skin and hair becomes dry. Skin may appear dry, and flaky and hair may turn dry, lifeless, dull and appear like straw. Nails may appear brittle and break easily.[news-medical.net]

Treatment

  • Other studies deal with the effects of malnutrition on endocrine function; liver function in PCM; the synergistic interaction of malnutrition and infection; and the treatment and prevention of PCM.[books.google.com]
  • If you have an open sore on a limb with edema or only one limb is swollen, these also can indicate a more serious condition that requires medical treatment.[livestrong.com]
  • These results may contribute to the understanding of oedematous SAM, and inspire to further research into better ways of treatment of these very ill children.[journals.plos.org]
  • Cost effectiveness of a community based prevention and treatment of acute malnutrition programme in Mumbai slums, India Goudet S, Jayaraman A, Chanani S, Osrin D, Devleesschauwer B, Bogin B, et al. PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0205688.[who.int]
  • This question was posted the Prevention and treatment of severe acute malnutrition forum area and has 6 replies.[en-net.org]

Prognosis

  • With early treatment the prognosis is good, but stunted growth is common. Prevention of kwashiorkor can only be assured through a change in the living conditions of the child and the community.[realhopeforhaiti.org]
  • Prognosis Most children can lose some of their body weight without side effects, but losing more than 40 percent is usually fatal. Death usually results from heart failure, an electrolyte imbalance, or low body temperature.[healthofchildren.com]
  • The child is considered healed when their mass reaches 85% of normal. [ citation needed ] Prognosis [ edit ] Disorders usually resolve after early treatment.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • However, the presence or absence of jowls did not make any difference to the prognosis in the Jamaican children I studied. Likewise the hair color changes do not affect the likelihood of death.[pfeda.univ-lille1.fr]

Etiology

  • Etiology There are two principal theories regarding the etiology of kwashiorkor: the classical theory of protein deficiency and the newer theory of free radical damage.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • […] generalized), hyperthyreosis (typically pretibial) Generalized vs. localized edema References: [1] [2] [3] [4] Lymphedema Definition : edema associated with lymphatic obstruction and reduced fluid clearance due to compromised lymphatic vessels or lymph nodes Etiology[amboss.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Malnutrition underlies 55% of childhood mortality worldwide. Kwashiorkor may occur at any age but is seen most frequently in children 1–3 years of age. Kwashiorkor is seldom seen in the 1st year of life.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Validity and epidemiology of reported poor appetite among Peruvian infants from a low-income, periurban community. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:26–32. PubMed Google Scholar 46. Krebs NF, Hambidge KM, Walravens PA.[link.springer.com]
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY  Global burden- more prevalent in developing countries.[slideshare.net]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Lymphedema Protein rich fluid Nonpitting edema Pathophysiology of Edema 1. Alteration in Starling pressure produces a transudate a. Clinical examples of increased vascular hydrostatic pressure i. Pulmonary edema in left sided heart failure ii.[howmed.net]
  • Pathophysiology Temperature regulation is impaired, leading to hypothermia in a cold environment and hyperthermia in a hot environment.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • This is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the very complex pathophysiology of the different forms of malnutrition, especially since I’m not an expert.[healio.com]
  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 53. Starvation - Increased catabolism - Increased glycogen depletion - Breakdown of proteins to aminoacids for gluconeogenesis - Production of ketone bodies from fatty acids 54.[slideshare.net]

Prevention

  • The clarification it provides constitutes a benchmark for design of future programs of prevention, therapy, rehabilitation, research, or teaching.[books.google.com]
  • She served as Chief of the Unit for Monitoring of Health and Preventable Deaths, Public Health Institute, Russia, as well as Associate Professor of Public Health at the Moscow Medical Academy.[books.google.com]
  • Cost effectiveness of a community based prevention and treatment of acute malnutrition programme in Mumbai slums, India Goudet S, Jayaraman A, Chanani S, Osrin D, Devleesschauwer B, Bogin B, et al. PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0205688.[who.int]
  • STEP 1 PREVENT/TREAT HYPOGLYCEMIA Blood glucose 38.[slideshare.net]

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