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Elephantiasis

Elephantiases

Elephantiasis is defined as enlargement of a limb, usually caused by obstructed lymphatic vessels.


Presentation

  • Case-control study of skin biopsy and excision specimens histologically diagnosed with lymphedema and presenting as a localized skin tumor identified during a 4-year period.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present this case and review the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Histopathology investigations have demonstrated that silicon, aluminium, magnesium and iron are present in the lower limb lymph node macrophages of both patients and non-patients living barefoot on these clays.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case is presented here of Graves' disease who had elephantiasis variety of pre-tibial myxedema (PTM).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A case of a child with a rare giant congenital cavernous lymphangioma giving rise to elephantiasis of the left lower extremity is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • However, he died from congestive heart failure and pneumonia in May of 1993.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Characterized by profound non-pitting edema with cobblestone-like papules, plaques, and nodules, it typically occurs secondary to infections, surgeries, tumor obstruction, radiation, congestive heart failure, and obesity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chronic lymphedema, either congenital or secondary to infection, surgery, radiation, neoplastic obstruction, obesity, portal hypertension, or chronic congestive heart failure, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • heart failure, and obesity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Lymphatic obstruction can be primary or due to various causes such as surgery, tumour, radiation, congestive heart failure or obesity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Myxedema
  • Elephantiasis Nostras Verrucosa (ENV) is a rare form of pretibial myxedema, which is nearly always associated with Graves' disease. A case is presented here of Graves' disease who had elephantiasis variety of pre-tibial myxedema (PTM).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A notable sufferer of Proteus syndrome was the so-called Elephant Man.Other causes may include: Repeated streptococcal infection Lymphadenectomy Hereditary birth defects Pretibial myxedema "Lymphatic filariasis". World Health Organization.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] episodes of cellulitis, as was the case with our patient. 6 The differential diagnosis of ENV is broad and includes lymphatic filariasis, chromoblastomycosis, lipedema, lipodermatosclerosis, papillomatosis cutis carcinoides, popular mucinosis, pretibial myxedema[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Italian
  • METHODS: Medical records of patients with lower limb elephantiasis attending the Italian Dermatological Centre of Mekele, Tigray capital city, over a 4-year period (2005-2009) were retrospectively analyzed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In other languages: French Italian Portuguese Romanian German Dutch Swedish Russian Polish Czech Greek Turkish Chinese Japanese Korean Arabic[wordreference.com]
Abdominal Mass
  • We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who had progressively developed an enormous pediculated abdominal mass hanging down her knees. The skin was thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured. She had a history of multiple abdominal cellulites.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Heart Failure
  • However, he died from congestive heart failure and pneumonia in May of 1993.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Characterized by profound non-pitting edema with cobblestone-like papules, plaques, and nodules, it typically occurs secondary to infections, surgeries, tumor obstruction, radiation, congestive heart failure, and obesity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chronic lymphedema, either congenital or secondary to infection, surgery, radiation, neoplastic obstruction, obesity, portal hypertension, or chronic congestive heart failure, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Lymphatic obstruction can be primary or due to various causes such as surgery, tumour, radiation, congestive heart failure or obesity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cardiomegaly
  • American man presented with a medical history of morbid obesity (weighing more than 550 lb), benign prostatic hyperplasia, hyperlipidemia, gynecomastia, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psoriasis, sleep apnea, and cardiomegaly[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Muscular Atrophy
  • It has been reported that maintaining a seated posture obstructs both lymphoducts and veins because of bending the groin, decreases their return flow by inducing muscular atrophy, and causes subcutaneous edema in the lower limbs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cutaneous Manifestation
  • There is no standard treatment for this rare cutaneous manifestation. This article describes debridement that is helpful when performed in addition to physiotherapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tropical Ulcer
  • RESULTS: Over a total of 511 patients, lymphedema resulted from trauma (40.7%), chronic venous insufficiency (12.5%), deep mycoses (10.8%), lymphatic filariasis (9.2%), elephantiasis nostras verrucosa (7.0%), tropical ulcer (6.3%), leprosy (4.9%), recurrent[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hyperpigmentation
  • On examination, his abdomen showed heavy skinfolding with hyperpigmentation, cobblestone and velvety changes, thickening and fibrotic induration of the skin, focal areas of redness, and tenderness on palpation (Figure 1A and 1B).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Skin Edema
  • Edema of the limbs is graded on the severity of the edema Grade I – Pitting (after pressing the edematous limb with the finger tip for 30 seconds, the fluid gets displaced into the surrounding tissue and leaves a ‘depression’ in the skin) edema which[pediatriconcall.com]
Mental Distress
  • Chronic mental distress and disability can result as it interferes with daily/routine activities of the affected individual.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Swelling of the Scrotum
  • Definitions of elephantiasis 1 n hypertrophy of certain body parts (usually legs and scrotum); the end state of the disease filariasis Types: elephantiasis neuromatosa hypertrophy of a limb chyloderma, elephantiasis scroti swelling of the scrotum resulting[vocabulary.com]
  • People with the disease can suffer from lymphedema and elephantiasis and in men, swelling of the scrotum, called hydrocele. Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide.[cdc.gov]
  • In men, elephantiasis can also result in the swelling of the scrotum (hydrocele). Elephantiasis affects the poorest communities, preventing individuals from living a productive working and social life, further trapping them in the cycle of poverty.[unitingtocombatntds.org]
  • In men, lymphedema of the genitalia usually involves swelling of the scrotum, often to the size of a watermelon making it very painful and difficult to walk. In women, the condition may present swelling in one or both breasts.[end.org]
  • Usually, the upper and lower limbs are affected, but often swelling of the scrotum, vulva and breasts are observed. Soft tissue swelling is sometimes very significant.[medical-enc.com]

Workup

  • The histopathological diagnosis was suggested as vulval elephantiasis, and further workup was suggested. Subsequent to histopathologic report, filarial antigen serology was done, which was positive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] affecting humans and animals, caused by filariae; ie, nematode parasites of the family Filariidae. [1] Filarial parasites can be classified according to the habitat of the adult worms in the vertebral host, as follows (see Pathophysiology, Etiology, and Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Polyps
  • We identified 24 cases of localized lymphedema presenting as solitary large polyps (11), solid or papillomatous plaques (7), pendulous swellings (4), or tumors mimicking sarcoma (2).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fibroepithelial polyp was considered as another possible differential diagnosis. However, absence of loose myxoid stroma, acanthosis of overlying epidermis, and presence of numerous dilated lymphatics ruled out this possibility.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tissue Nematode
  • Filariasis is a helminthic infection caused by tissue nematodes. It is estimated that at least 120 million people are infected worldwide and another 1 billion are "at risk" of infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • AIM: The aim of this paper was to report on a novel approach to the intensive outpatient treatment of elephantiasis of an underprivileged population.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Surgery in such case may not always be the best treatment because it does not treat the cause of disease but only treats the cutaneous symptoms. Nevertheless, debridement is a rapid and an aesthetically acceptable form of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Various treatment options have been reported for this disease. We present a 64-year-old man with erythrodermic psoriasis and elephantiasis nostras verrucosa in whom the lesions were resolved almost completely after acitretin treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There are plenty of treatment options. However, there is no complete treatment. Preventive or symptomatic therapy is the basis for treating elephantiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Existing treatment modalities serve to improve cosmesis or treat symptoms. Herein, we report a case of ENV with lymphocutaneous fistula successfully treated with ablative carbon dioxide laser.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis for Lymphatic Filariasis is generally good, as most individuals are asymptomatic.[dovemed.com]
  • Prognosis With DEC treatment, the prognosis is good for early and mild cases of lymphatic filariasis. The prognosis is poor, however, for heavy parasitic infestations.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Etiology

  • To describe the clinical and pathologic characteristics and etiologic factors of localized lymphedema.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The causal relationship between etiology and recurrent disease is illustrated here by 2 cases. Therapy options are also discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology is either idiopathic or caused by a variety of conditions such as chronic filarial disease, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and chronic recurrent cellulites. Elephantiasis of the abdominal wall is very rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Brugia malayi is an etiological agent present in areas of Asia. What is the Cause of the Disease? Etiology The etiology of elephantiasis is lymphatic damage secondary to the nematode infection lymphatic filariasis.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • In Mozambique, as in many other countries of sub-Saharan Africa, lymphatic filariasis represents the most important etiology [ 1 ].[journals.plos.org]

Epidemiology

  • However, other disorders cause tropical lymphedema, and this report aims to identify clinical epidemiological aspects of limb swelling in northern Ethiopia and to provide an algorithm orienting the clinical diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract This article reviews peer-reviewed publications and book chapters on the history, epidemiology, genetics, ecology, pathogenesis, pathology and management of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiological aspects of the disease as well as clinical and pathological data of some of the cases are illustrated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiological and ecological studies have linked the disease with barefoot exposure to red clay soils of volcanic origin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ‘However, there are differences in the epidemiology and pathophysiology of elephantiasis and hydrocele.’[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • ‘However, there are differences in the epidemiology and pathophysiology of elephantiasis and hydrocele.’[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
  • ‘However, there are differences in the epidemiology and pathophysiology of elephantiasis and hydrocele.’ ‘During the past four years, 80 million people have been successfully treated for elephantiasis, one of the world's most disfiguring diseases.’[oxforddictionaries.com]
  • To the Editor: Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa (ENV) is a skin disorder caused by marked underlying lymphedema that leads to hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis, and verrucous growths on the epidermis. 1 The pathophysiology of ENV relates to noninfectious[mdedge.com]
  • Pathophysiology The pathophysiology is permanent lymphatic dilatation and dysfunction. This leads to swelling and secondary infections resulting in chronic skin changes and continued risk of infection.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Pathophysiology of edema in congestive heart failure. Heart Dis Stroke 1993 ; 2 : 325 –9. Turhan E, Ege A, Keser S, Bayar A. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa complicated with chronic tibial osteomyelitis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2007 ; 128 : 1183 –6.[jabfm.org]

Prevention

  • Podoconiosis can be prevented; the main primary preventive measure is protective footwear. Secondary measures include a strict hygiene regimen and compression therapy, which can reverse initial lesions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Podoconiosis is unique in being an entirely preventable non-communicable disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract This study assesses people's knowledge and perceptions on transmission, prevention and eradication of elephantiasis and hydrocele, common manifestations of chronic lymphatic filariasis (LF).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention and Treatment Prevention Since there is no known vaccine or cure for lymphatic filariasis, the most effective method that exists to control the disease is prevention.[web.stanford.edu]

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Last updated: 2017-05-04 13:14