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Embolism of Arteries of the Extremities

Acute Peripheral Arterial Occlusion


  • […] within the first 12 hours and 76 patients (55.48%) presented after a delay of more than 12 hours.[tgkdc.dergisi.org]
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Between January 2000 and December 2004, 411 consecutive patients with chronic limb ischemia, including 16 (3.8%) patients with chronic arterial embolism were included in the present study.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • If the source of the emboli are the heart, then a dysrythmia may be present, most commonly atrial fibrillation. Also, signs of a ventricular aneurysm may be present such as a left ventricular heave or a paradoxical impulse from the apex.[angiologist.com]
  • Proximal severe acute ischaemia presents as a pale, paralysed pulseless limb. This is a surgical emergency because it may progress to extensive gangrene if the obstruction is not rapidly removed.[dermnetnz.org]
  • Can present acutely in patients without significant collateral circulation. Proximal occlusions lead to more rapid progression of findings. Occlusion at aortic bifurcation can produce...[5minuteconsult.com]
  • Dry gangrene — codes and concepts open What is gangrene ? Gangrene is the localised death of body tissue. Dry gangrene is due to prolonged ischaemia ( infarction ) or inadequate oxygenation or lack of blood flow.[dermnetnz.org]
  • Acute peripheral arterial occlusion requires an urgent decision for effective management in order to avoid progressive limb ischemia and extensive gangrene.[tgkdc.dergisi.org]
  • (B) Gangrene of the toes resulting from severe arterial ischemia. (C) Ulcer from venous stasis. FIGURE 28-17 (A) Ulcers resulting from arterial emboli. (B) Gangrene of the toes resulting from severe arterial ischemia. (C) Ulcer from v...[5minuteconsult.com]
  • Critical ischaemia evd The term critical ischaemia is used to denote the worsening of chronic ischaemia leading to the threat of gangrene in the lower extremity. Symptoms include rest pain and/or gangrene or an incurable ulcer in the foot area.[ebm-guidelines.com]
  • […] anterior inferior) (posterior inferior) (superior) 433.8 cerebral (see also Embolism, brain) 434.1 choroidal (anterior) 433.8 communicating posterior 433.8 coronary (see also Infarct, myocardium) 410.9 extremity 444.22 hypophyseal 433.8 mesenteric (with gangrene[icd9data.com]
Surgical Procedure
  • Surgical procedures may also include: Removal of embolus or thrombus Balloon catheterisation or stent Arterial or venous bypass surgery Hyperbaric oxygen treatment.[dermnetnz.org]
  • The mortality rate is high, even though the surgical procedure is minor (often with local anesthesia). In the aforementioned series, 9% of patients died within a month and the 5 year survival was below 40%.[angiologist.com]
  • Surgery If arteries or veins are significantly blocked and blood flow to areas of the body (usually the legs) is restricted, we may perform a surgical procedure to open up the blockage and preserve function of the limb.[stanfordhealthcare.org]
  • procedure called an embolectomy is sometimes carried out to remove an obstruction.[nhs.uk]
  • procedures include: Arterial bypass surgery to create another source of blood supply [2] Embolectomy, to remove the embolus, with various techniques available: Thromboaspiration [2] Angioplasty with balloon catheterization with or without implanting[en.wikipedia.org]
Intermittent Claudication
  • However, patients with acute arterial thrombosis had intermittent claudication more often than acute arterial embolism.[tgkdc.dergisi.org]
  • Surgical management of chronic ischaemia with intermittent claudication evd Intermittent claudication, induced by chronic ischaemia, is a troublesome complaint but seldom poses a serious risk.[ebm-guidelines.com]
  • On the contrary, patients with acute arterial thrombosis had the previous symptom of intermittent claudication (51.7% vs. 3.3%, p 0.001) more than patients with acute arterial embolism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cilostazol for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 :CD003748. Medline Google Scholar 164. Salhiyyah K, Senanayake E, Abdel-Hadi M, et al.. Pentoxifylline for intermittent claudication.[ahajournals.org]
  • claudication Spasm of artery I74 Arterial embolism and thrombosis Includes: infarction: · embolic · thrombotic occlusion: · embolic · thrombotic Excludes: embolism and thrombosis: · basilar ( I63.0-I63.2, I65.1 ) · carotid ( I63.0-I63.2, I65.2 ) · cerebral[apps.who.int]
Severe Pain
  • SEVERE PAIN AND NUMBESS IN THE HAND These symptoms may indicate a fresh blood clot in the arm, which is a medical emergency. Call 911 if you have these symptoms.[vascular.org]
  • Symptoms of an arterial embolism include: severe pain in the area of the embolism pale, bluish cool skin numbness tingling muscular weakness or paralysis Common symptoms of a pulmonary embolism include: labored breathing, sometimes accompanied by chest[encyclopedia.com]
  • Ischaemia should be considered critical if the patient has severe pain during the night, when at rest the patient has foot gangrene or a foot ulcer that does not improve, and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is 0.85.[ebm-guidelines.com]
Atrial Septal Defect
  • For patients with Ebstein's anomaly combined atrial septal defect, closure atrial septal defect is not recommend, but the closure atrial septal defect is surgical indication if there is a history of paradoxical embolism. [23] However selection of surgical[journals.lww.com]
  • DVT may be present and that may be a clue that the reason for the emboli are paradoxical emboli through a patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect.[angiologist.com]
  • ( I63.0 - I63.2, I65.2 ) cerebral embolism and thrombosis ( I63.3 - I63.5, I66 .-) coronary embolism and thrombosis ( I21 - I25 ) mesenteric embolism and thrombosis ( K55.0 -) ophthalmic embolism and thrombosis ( H34 .-) precerebral embolism and thrombosis[icd10coded.com]
  • […] both leg arteries Thrombosis of both popliteal arteries Thrombosis of left common femoral artery Thrombosis of left femoral artery Thrombosis of left leg artery Thrombosis of left popliteal artery Thrombosis of right common femoral artery Thrombosis of[icd10data.com]
  • Related Concepts SNOMET-CT Embolism and thrombosis of the anterior tibial artery (disorder) Embolism and thrombosis of the dorsalis pedis artery (disorder) Embolism and thrombosis of the posterior tibial artery (disorder) Embolism and thrombosis of the[icd.codes]
  • […] are much more acute, and the initial stage of thrombosis is rather hidden.[tgkdc.dergisi.org]
  • (440-449) Related Descriptions: Atheromatous embolus of lower limb Common femoral artery occlusion Common femoral artery thrombosis Crural artery thrombosis Embolism and thrombosis of the anterior tibial artery Embolism and thrombosis of the dorsalis[emedcodes.com]
Vascular Disease
  • You are more likely to have vascular disease as you get older.[icdlist.com]
  • Advances in axial imaging of peripheral vascular disease. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2015 Oct. 17(10):87. [Medline]. Stacy MR, Sinusas AJ. Novel applications of radionuclide imaging in peripheral vascular disease. Cardiol Clin. 2016 Feb. 34(1):167-77.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • disease, unspecified I74 Arterial embolism and thrombosis I74.0 Embolism and thrombosis of abdominal aorta I74.01 Saddle embolus of abdominal aorta I74.09 Other arterial embolism and thrombosis of abdominal aorta I74.1 Embolism and thrombosis of other[icd10data.com]
  • ] I73.8 Other specified peripheral vascular diseases Acrocyanosis Acroparaesthesia: · simple [Schultze's type] · vasomotor [Nothnagel's type] Erythrocyanosis Erythromelalgia I73.9 Peripheral vascular disease, unspecified Intermittent claudication Spasm[apps.who.int]
  • Advances in axial imaging of peripheral vascular disease. Curr Cardiol Rep . 2015 Oct. 17(10):87. [Medline] . Stacy MR, Sinusas AJ. Novel applications of radionuclide imaging in peripheral vascular disease. Cardiol Clin . 2016 Feb. 34(1):167-77.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Heart Disease
  • Other common causes of blood clots include: smoking hardening of the arteries from high cholesterol surgery that affects blood circulation injuries to the arteries heart disease atrial fibrillation — a type of rapid and irregular heartbeat The symptoms[healthline.com]
  • A beta-blocker may be indicated for the treatment of coronary heart disease or hypertension.[ebm-guidelines.com]
  • Certain health conditions – such as obesity, heart disease, cancer and pregnancy – can cause blood clots to form inside your veins even where there's no bleeding.[nhs.uk]
  • Other factors that make vascular disease more likely include Family history of vascular or heart diseases Pregnancy Illness or injury Long periods of sitting or standing still Any condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or[icdlist.com]
  • Received September 29, 2016 Received in revised form December 20, 2016 Accepted December 23, 2016 1 Introduction EA is a benign and stable congenital heart disease for asymptomatic patients.[journals.lww.com]
  • Massive iliofemoral venous thrombosis must be borne in mind in differential diagnosis; the signs and symptoms include limb oedema, cyanosis and venous congestion. Ischaemic paralysis may mimic a neurological illness.[ebm-guidelines.com]


  • This article will discuss the various etiologies for upper extremity embolism, the clinical presentation, the proper workup and the various treatment options. Upper extremity emboli may arise from multiple sources.[angiologist.com]


  • The main treatment for acute peripheral arterial occlusion is surgery.[tgkdc.dergisi.org]
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical problem of chronic arterial embolism in the aspects of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The treatment of upper extremity embolism is divided to acute treatment and long-term treatment. The acute treatment should include rapid anticoagulation and emergent surgery.[angiologist.com]
  • Drug treatment Aspirin 100 mg daily.[ebm-guidelines.com]


  • PURPOSE: To better understand the prognosis of atheroembolic disease, we reviewed the outcomes of 41 patients with embolization to the viscera and lower extremities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • (Outcomes/Resolutions) The prognosis of Arterial Embolism depends on the location of the clot and the severity of the block.[dovemed.com]
  • What is the prognosis for gangrene ? Prognosis of ischaemic gangrene depends on the extent of disease, the underlying cause and the timing of appropriate treatment.[dermnetnz.org]
  • Prognosis in chronic ischaemia: deterioration in 25% of cases, revascularisation in 5% of cases and amputation in 1–2% of cases.[ebm-guidelines.com]
  • […] a second source of blood supply Clot removal through a balloon catheter placed into the affected artery or through open surgery on the artery (embolectomy) Opening of the artery with a balloon catheter (angioplasty) with or without a stent Outlook (Prognosis[m.ufhealth.org]


  • Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10coded.com]
  • In addition, the investigation of etiologic factors and application of prophylactic treatments will decrease the risk of recurrent embolic occlusion.[tgkdc.dergisi.org]
  • This article will discuss the various etiologies for upper extremity embolism, the clinical presentation, the proper workup and the various treatment options. Upper extremity emboli may arise from multiple sources.[angiologist.com]
  • ., et al. " Influence of etiology of atrial fibrillation on incidence of systemic embolism". Am. J. Cardiol 1977: 40; 509-13. 8.[uninet.edu]
  • (Etiology) The presence of atherosclerosis creates an environment for the formation of a clot, in the blood vessel. Generally, the arteries are smooth and resilient, permitting easy passage of blood.[dovemed.com]


  • 2] Blockage of arteries that supply arms or legs may result in necrosis and gangrene [1] Temporary or permanent decrease or loss of other organ functions [2] In septic embolism, there can be infection of the affected tissue or even septic shock, [2] Epidemiology[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Epidemiology of Ebstein anomaly: prevalence and patterns in Texas, 1999–2005. Am J Med Genet A 2011;155a:1007–14. [4]. Attenhofer Jost CH, Connolly HM, Edwards WD, et al. Ebstein's anomaly —review of a multifaceted congenital cardiac condition.[journals.lww.com]
  • Fowkes University of Edinburgh—Emeritus Professor of Epidemiology • AstraZeneca † • Bayer• Merck None None None None None 5.1–5.3, 5.6, 5.10, 7, and 9.2. Naomi M.[ahajournals.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • The clot can then move to an artery and cause arterial embolisation. [2] Pathophysiology [ edit ] An arterial embolism is caused by one or more emboli getting stuck in an artery and blocking blood flow, causing ischemia, possibly resulting in infarction[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Pathophysiology PVD, also known as arteriosclerosis obliterans, is primarily the result of atherosclerosis. The atheroma consists of a core of cholesterol joined to proteins with a fibrous intravascular covering.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The pathophysiology of skeletal muscle ischemia and the reperfusion syndrome: a review. Cardiovasc Surg. 2002 ; 10 :620–30. Crossref Medline Google Scholar 282. Londero LS, Nørgaard B, Houlind K.[ahajournals.org]


  • Prevention Prevention of PE is a lot easier than diagnosis or treatment. Therefore, when hospitalized, it is important to ask your health care providers what measures are being taken to prevent PE.[vascularcures.org]
  • Prevention Prevention begins with finding possible sources of a blood clot. Your provider may prescribe blood thinners (such as warfarin or heparin) to prevent clots from forming. Antiplatelet drugs may also be needed.[m.ufhealth.org]
  • The cause of the clot, if found, should be treated to prevent further problems.[medlineplus.gov]
  • Prevention Embolism can be prevented in high risk patients through antithrombotic drugs such as heparin, venous interruption, gradient elastic stockings, and intermittent pneumatic compression of the legs.[encyclopedia.com]

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