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Emetine


Presentation

  • The novel findings present a potential route to harness the nanomolar antimalarial efficacy of this affordable natural product.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report two female patients with a history of alcohol abuse presenting with proximal painful muscle weakness following aversion therapy with emetine hydrochloride.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 27-year-old woman presented in 1991 with a right foot drop, followed a few months later by progressive severe neck and limb weakness associated with dysphagia, faecal incontinence and diffuse body ache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our finding on the regulation of RNA splicing of members of the Bcl-2 family in response to emetine presents a potential target for cancer treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present here a liposomal formulation encapsulating both the anthracycline daunorubicin (DNR) and emetine (Eme) for enhanced cytotoxic effect against AML cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • A 15-year-old girl with a four-month history of cardiac failure from undetermined cause was admitted to the hospital with weakness, fatigue, and weight loss.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms can include fulminating dysentery, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, abdominal pain, the amoeba can actually bore into the intestinal wall, causing lesions and intestinal symptoms, and it may reach the blood stream.[wikivisually.com]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • heart failure ( dyspnea and hypotension) Frequent reported effects: Muscle weakness/tenderness/stiffness/aching and tremor Mild paresthesias Contraindications Patients with cardiac/renal disease P atients with recent history of polyneuritis I n young[pharmacology2000.com]
Dyspnea
  • Arrhythmia Precordial pain Pain at injection site Muscle weakness GI: diarrhea; vomiting Neuropathy Heart failure Headache Dyspnea DRUG INTERACTIONS Cardiotoxic drugs may potentiate cardiotoxicity leading to dysrhythmias.[hopkinsguides.com]
  • Human systemic effects: diarrhea, distorted perceptions, dyspnea, hallucinations, hypermothty, nausea or vomiting. A human eye irritant. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of Cland NOx.[chemicalbook.com]
  • […] abscess Diarrhea: more common, several days after treatment initiation Minor ECG changes-frequent Serious cardiac conduction defects-infrequent Most serious symptoms/findings: Tachycardia (other arrhythmias) Precordial pain Congestive heart failure ( dyspnea[pharmacology2000.com]
Vomiting
  • Emetine is a drug used as both an anti-protozoal and to induce vomiting. It is produced from the ipecac root. It takes its name from its emetic properties.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Progressive myopathy developed in two women who consumed ipecac syrup containing emetine hydrochloride to induce vomiting as part of their anorexia nervosa. Muscle biopsy specimens were characterized by severe disruption of the sarcomeres.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Emetine, a natural alkaloid from Psychotria ipecacuanha, has been used in phytomedicine to induce vomiting, and to treat cough and severe amoebiasis. Certain data suggest the induction of apoptosis by emetine in leukemia cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It was commonly used as anti-protozoal and vomiting agent. The apoptosis-inducing effect of emetine makes it considered as a potential anti-cancer agent for various human cancers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It emerged that she had been consuming increasing quantities of ipecac syrup (up to 200 mL per week) for three months to induce vomiting and weight loss.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nausea
  • In some cases, it was given with opioids to reduce nausea. Other suggestions to reduce nausea involved coating the drug to allow it to be released after digestion in the stomach.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Additionally, emetine could be administered hypodermically which still produced nausea, but not to the degree experienced in oral administration. While use of emetine still caused nausea, it was more effective than the crude extract of ipecac root.[diki.pl]
  • Contraindications/Adverse Effects: Common: flatulence; uncommon/rare-- nausea,abdominal cramps, rash Diloxanide furoate (Furamide) should not be used in pregnancy or given the children 2 years old.[pharmacology2000.com]
  • Human systemic effects: diarrhea, distorted perceptions, dyspnea, hallucinations, hypermothty, nausea or vomiting. A human eye irritant. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of Cland NOx.[chemicalbook.com]
  • There is evidence that schizophrenia involves altered levels of dopamine activity, similar dopamine antagonist drugs are also some of the most effective anti-nausea agents.[wikivisually.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis Case 4-2019: An 18-Year-Old Man with Abdominal Pain and Hematochezia Bridging the Gap Challenge Yourself[nejm.org]
  • Clinical manifestations, when present, include persistent diarrhea, occasionally dysentery, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Symptoms can be severe in debilitated individuals."[pharmacology2000.com]
  • Symptoms can include fulminating dysentery, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, abdominal pain, the amoeba can actually bore into the intestinal wall, causing lesions and intestinal symptoms, and it may reach the blood stream.[wikivisually.com]
Hypotension
  • Induces hypotension by blocking adrenoreceptors. Inhibits DNA replication in the early S phase. Inhibits HIF-1 activation by hypoxia. Induces apoptosis in leukemia cells.[biovision.com]
  • Emetine dihydrochloride has been shown to block adrenoreceptors, thus inducing hypotension. Emetine dihydrochloride has been reported to interfere with cytometric DNA replication analysis at the early S phase.[scbt.com]
  • […] should only be used as a last resort in patients with neuromuscular, renal or cardiac impairments given significant toxicity Telemetry/ECG cardiac monitoring recommended with administration; treatment should be stopped immediately if tachycardia, severe hypotension[hopkinsguides.com]
  • Diarrhea: more common, several days after treatment initiation Minor ECG changes-frequent Serious cardiac conduction defects-infrequent Most serious symptoms/findings: Tachycardia (other arrhythmias) Precordial pain Congestive heart failure ( dyspnea and hypotension[pharmacology2000.com]
Myopathy
  • As the myopathy is clinically reversible upon discontinuation of ipecac consumption the morphological findings should also be potentially reversible.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To alert physicians to the dangers of a readily available, non-prescription drug by describing the clinical and pathological features of myopathy due to chronic poisoning with ipecac syrup in a patient with an eating disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Emetine and related drug-induced myopathies are uncommon but are of experimental interest because of their effects on mitochondria and the light they shed on autophagic mechanisms in muscle.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Heavy or overusage of emetine can carry the risk of developing proximal myopathy and/or cardiomyopathy.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Heavy or overusage of emetine can carry the risk of developing proximal myopathy and/or cardiomyopathy. Overdosage of emetine produces focal necrosis of cardiac muscle resulting in cardiac failure and sudden death.[diki.pl]
Incontinence
  • A 27-year-old woman presented in 1991 with a right foot drop, followed a few months later by progressive severe neck and limb weakness associated with dysphagia, faecal incontinence and diffuse body ache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Seizure
  • Drugs Effective in Seizure Disorders 122 Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists 141 AnalgesicAntipyretics and Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs NSAIDs 159 Central Nervous System Stimulants 181 Psychopharmacology 186 Drug Therapy of Parkinsonism and Other[books.google.com]
  • Vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, weakness, stomatitis, urethral burning, vertigo paresthesias, insomnia (reduced gastrointestinal irritation if taken with food) Rare: P ancreatitis Severe CNS effects, i.e. mental changes, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures[pharmacology2000.com]
Peripheral Neuropathy
  • neuropathy Visual loss Neurotoxic effects tend to be reversible; however complete reversal may not occur Other-typically mild/infrequent: Diarrhea (several days) Gastrointestinal symptoms Headache Slight thyroid enlargement Contraindications/Cautions[pharmacology2000.com]
Dizziness
  • -CDC- Not effective (significantly) against: facultative anaerobes obligate aerobes Candida albicans Adverse Effects:metronidazole (Flagyl) Common: headache, dry mouth, nausea, metallic-taste Urine:-dark/reddish-brown Uncommon: Vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness[pharmacology2000.com]
Foot Drop
  • A 27-year-old woman presented in 1991 with a right foot drop, followed a few months later by progressive severe neck and limb weakness associated with dysphagia, faecal incontinence and diffuse body ache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Amnesia
  • They are also inconsistent with the amnesia being due to the suppression of an adrenocortical response as previously suggested. No obvious correlation between amnesia and the mechanism of protein synthesis was observed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

T Wave Abnormality
  • Although an electrocardiogram revealed nonspecific T-wave abnormalities and laboratory studies showed supranormal enzyme test results for creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, no definite explanation of the cardiomyopathy was forthcoming.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • These findings suggest that the combination of cisplatin and emetine might be a promising treatment for ovarian cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Previous treatments, which included intralesional injections of steroids and concomitant intramuscular injections of antimonials, flagyl, fluorocytosine, infusions of amphotericin B--with and without concomitant treatment by steroids systemically and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Compared to the sodium dithiocarbamate salt 1, all the dithiocarbamate ester analogs (2 and 4a-4 g) displayed lower cytotoxicity than compound 1 (PC3, IC50 0.087 0.005 μM; DU145, IC50 0.079 0.003 μM and LNCaP, IC50 0.079 0.003 μM) on day 7 of treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At a molecular level, emetine treatment was followed by a reduction in HIF-1α protein levels.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our finding on the regulation of RNA splicing of members of the Bcl-2 family in response to emetine presents a potential target for cancer treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • HIF-α overexpression in bladder cancer corresponds to a poorer prognosis. This, as well as the concise regulation of HIFs, makes them an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.[ecommons.luc.edu]
  • Chisako Iriyama, Shunsuke Kuno, Yasuhiko Harada, Shigeo Nakamura, Akihiro Tomita, Fumihiko Hayakawa and Hitoshi Kiyoi Blood 2016 128:3019; Abstract Background: Despite remarkable advances of initial treatment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the prognosis[bloodjournal.org]

Etiology

  • The etiological agents for malaria are a family of unicellular protozoan pathogens of the genus Plasmodium. The parasite has a complex two-host lifecycle with a sexual stage occurring in the mosquito vector and an asexual stage in the human host.[elifesciences.org]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract One hundred cases of paragonimiasis from Saraburi province, Thailand were studied with respect to epidemiology, clinical manifestations, radiography and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • (via alkaloid ) antiprotozoal drug Any antimicrobial drug which is used to treat or prevent protozoal infections.[ebi.ac.uk]
  • Author information 1 Department of Molecular-Targeting Cancer Prevention, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan. 2 Department of Public Health and Environmental Medicine, The Jikei University School[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N. Engl. J.[mdpi.com]
  • To prevent reinfection, all sexual partners should be treated. Metronidazole-resistant strains have been reported."-CDC Metronidazole (Flagyl):Alternative drug in: Giardia lamblia (Giardia lamblia, a protozoan flagellate (Diplomonadida).[pharmacology2000.com]

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