Endometrial adenocarcinoma or cancer of the uterine corpus accounts for more than 80% of endometrial cancers and is one of the most common female genital tract malignancies. Obesity, nulliparity, tamoxifen therapy, long-term unopposed estrogen action, genetic predisposition, and hyperinsulinemia are supposed to be risk factors associated with it.
Cancerous tumors in the uterine corpus are called endometrial cancers as 92% occur in the endometrium  and more than 80% of these are endometrial adenocarcinomas.
Although most endometrial cancers are diagnosed in the elderly with a median age of 65 years , it is also seen in younger women . It presents commonly with abnormal uterine bleeding or spotting, dysuria (pain during urination), and dyspareunia. In 90% of endometrial cancer patients, uterine bleeding is the only symptom  and this cardinal presentation leads to an early diagnosis of the condition. Rarely, abnormal cervical cytology is the first clue to the presence of a uterine corpus malignancy in asymptomatic women. In perimenopausal women, the menstrual periods appear further apart and become scantier and so, any intermenstrual bleeding or heavy frequent menses should raise a cause for concern. In postmenopausal women, unprovoked vaginal bleeding may be the first symptom of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
Several risk factors have been reported to be associated with the development of endometrial adenocarcinoma and these are endometrial hyperplasia, obesity, hormonal treatment  , tamoxifen medication  , early menarche, late menopause or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) -conditions associated with prolonged unopposed estrogen effect, genetic predisposition  , hyperinsulinemia .
As endometrial adenocarcinomas can occur in peri as well as postmenopausal women, heavy menstrual bleeding or intermenstrual bleeding, irrespective of amount or duration, should be thoroughly investigated. It is important to elicit a detailed menstrual history, intake of contraceptive pills, hormonal therapy (for PCOS etc), hyperinsulinemia, and a family history of endometrial malignancy. Physical examination includes an examination of the pelvis, uterus, cervix and vagina as well as the inguinal region for lymphadenopathy. In most cases the uterine size is normal and no gross abnormalities are noticed.
Transvaginal ultrasonography is performed to detect abnormal endometrial thickening as it has good sensitivity  and this can be further confirmed with hydro ultrasonography i.e ultrasonography after injection of saline in the uterine cavity. If the abnormal endometrial thickness is detected, then routine laboratory studies, electrocardiogram and chest radiography should be obtained as part of the preoperative assessment. The patient is examined under anesthesia and an endometrial or hysteroscopic biopsy can be obtained for histopathological examination and final confirmation of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Further staging of the tumor may require a laparotomy to detect extrauterine spread and lymph node involvement.
Prognostic biomarkers like estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are also tested as endometrial tumors associated with these markers are reported to have a good prognosis . Immunohistochemistry to identify the absence of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) marker, a tumor suppressor, has also been reported as a sensitive method to predict cell proliferation and survival .