Endometriosis is defined as ectopic development and proliferation of endometrial glands and connective tissue, with ovarian endometrioma being the most common type. Main symptoms are dysparenuria, dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain. The diagnosis is made through ultrasonography and MRI, whereas laparoscopy is used in both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Because infertility may ensue, various surgical approaches have been recommended, but recurrence rates reach up to 30%.
Despite the fact that an asymptomatic course can be observed in many women, the clinical presentation usually involves at least some gynecological symptoms. Most common complaints include chronic pelvic pain, which can be related to menstrual cycles that are often irregular, dysparenuria, fatigue and altered bowel/bladder movements . Constipation, diarrhea or hematochezia are not uncommon, whereas irritable bowel syndrome and migraine headaches have also been reported .
Entire Body System
There were significant differences in the postoperative improvement of pain between the persistent/recurrent pain group and the non-recurrent pain group according to the univariate and multivariate analyses. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
It showed statistical significance effect of age (hazard ratio [HR]=0.772), years of infertility (HR=0.224), and previous endometrioma surgery (HR=0.180), on fertility chance. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Asymptomatic incisional endometrioma of the anterior abdominal wall is rare. Clinical diagnosis may be difficult. We present a 26-year-old woman with incisional abdominal wall endometrioma discovered 5 years after caeserian section. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that chemerin plays a role in endometriosis-related pelvic inflammation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Inflammation in the peritoneal cavity after an endometrioma ruptures can cause fever, lead author Barbara Levy, M.D. states on UpToDate. [livestrong.com]
As the cysts spread, inflammation and pain develops in the pelvic region. While regular cysts are quite normal for most women, about 5 to 10% of women suffer from chocolate cysts. Overall, millions of girls and women suffer from endometriomas. [enkiverywell.com]
Pinar Kodaman, Director of Reproductive Endocrinology at Yale Fertility Center, shares how the content of endometriomas is toxic in many ways, causing fibrosis, inflammation, and mechanical disruption of the ovary. [drseckin.com]
Pinar Kodaman, Director of Reproductive Endocrinology at Yale Fertility Center, shares how the content of endometriomas is toxic in many ways, causing fibrosis, inflammation and mechanical disruption of the ovary. [endofound.org]
- Severe Pain
Cyclic and noncyclic severe pain may be an indicator or deep infiltrating diseases. Laparoscopic surgery is the gold standard, however, the issue of resection versus ablation should be further studied. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Severe pain, fever, and vomiting with cyst rupture. Spotting or bleeding between periods. Dark vaginal discharge. If a woman has severe and sudden pain in her pelvis, she should seek immediate medical attention. [hoool.com]
They can rupture, causing severe pain. During a pelvic examination, doctors can usually see or feel endometriomas that cause symptoms. Endometriomas in the vulva are surgically removed. [merckmanuals.com]
Surgery is also indicated when severe chronic pelvic pain is present. Observation and medical management usually are not usually effective in providing relief of symptoms associated with endometriomas. [brighamandwomens.org]
Ruptured endometriomas cause acute abdominal pain--pain that starts suddenly and can be severe. [livestrong.com]
- Abdominal Pain
This allowed for complete excision of the abdominal wall endometrioma and resolution of the cyclic, focal abdominal pain. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The patient reported a 6-month history of epigastric pain and vomiting. She had undergone conservative hysterectomy for uterine leiomyomas several years earlier. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Common side effects of Clomid may be abnormal vaginal bleeding, breast discomfort, headache, and GI symptoms of nausea and vomiting. [healthtap.com]
Bowel sounds may decrease due to slowing of intestinal activity, the abdomen may become distended, and vomiting may also occur, William Silen states in his textbook, “Cope's Early Diagnosis of the Acute Abdomen.” [livestrong.com]
So if you have an endometrioma, be sure to contact your doctor immediately if you experience a sudden increase in pain, nausea, or vomiting. [hystersisters.com]
[…] time Pain in the pelvis when urinating or having a bowel movement Pain in the pelvis with exercise, stretching, or bending over If the ovary twists, losing its blood supply, you may feel very intense pain Severe pain with rupture of the cyst Fever and vomiting [enkiverywell.com]
- Pelvic Mass
Rupture of a large ovarian endometrioma can lead to a high serum concentration of CA 125, a condition which, in addition to the detected pelvic mass, may mimic a malignant process. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The diagnosis of endometriosis is commonly suspected based on symptoms such as pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and/or dyspareunia. Physical exam may include reduced pelvic organ mobility, uterosacral mass or tenderness, or a pelvic mass. [clinmedjournals.org]
Endometriomas usually present like a pelvic mass as a result of growth of ectopic endometrial tissue within the ovary. [laparoscopyhospital.com]
Pelvic mass associated with raised CA 125 for benign condition: a case report. World Journal of Surgical Oncology. 2010;8:28. Ghaemmaghami F, Karimi ZM, Hamedi B. [casereports.in]
An endometrioma is a benign cyst or pelvic mass made up of localized endometriosis. They are also known as chocolate, endometrioid, endometrial, or endometriotic cysts. [hystersisters.com]
She also had a history of diarrhea. She had history of infertility and preexisting right endometrioma. The investigations revealed leukocytosis with neutrophils predominant. The preoperative diagnosis was acute appendicitis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Symptoms may vary from mild diarrhea to complete intestinal obstruction, and on rare occasions blood may appear in the stools during the menses. [jamanetwork.com]
[…] uterine bleeding and rregular vaginal clotting Large, painful ovarian cysts called endometriomas or "chocolate cysts" Sometime infertility, miscarriage, ectopic (tubal) pregnancy Pain associated with intercourse Nausea/vomiting, gastrointestinal cramping, diarrhea [laparoscopyhospital.com]
[…] tertiary center in Tehran, Iran, between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 to undergo laparoscopic cystectomy for ovarian endometriomas at least 30 mm in diameter, or regardless of size for patients with infertility, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, or dyschezia [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
It can cause in many woman symptoms varying from painful periods called dysmenorrhea, to pain with sexual activity known as dyspareunia, to gastrointestinal and urinary tract difficulties in certail group of female respectively referred to as dyschezia [laparoscopyhospital.com]
Typical Clinical Presentation of Endometrioma Chronic or acute pelvic pain • Dysmenorrhea • Dyspareunia • Infertility • Dyschezia / bowel symptoms / rectal bleeding • Urinary symptoms / haematuria • Diagnosed in patients with or without h/o diagnosed [slideshare.net]
Endometriosis can be asymptomatic, but associated symptoms include abdominal pain, painful periods, dyspareunia, dyschezia and infertility. [gynecolsurg.springeropen.com]
Abstract The aim of this cross-sectional study is to compare endometrial flushing fluid levels of α V β 3 integrin, glycodelin and PGF2α during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, n = 20), myoma uteri [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Therapy with these agents has a large number of sometimes permanent side effects, such as hot flushes, loss of bone mass, deepening of voice, weight gain, and facial hair growth.  Surgery [ edit ] Laparoscopic surgical approaches include excision of [en.wikipedia.org]
Hormonal treatment has a large number of sometimes permanent side effects, such as hot flushes, loss of bone mass, deepening of voice, weight gain, and facial hair growth. [ipfs.io]
Water will flush out harmful toxins from your system.This, in turn, will reduce your pain and alleviate swelling in your abdomen. Along with water, you can drink coconut water and green vegetable juice. Avoid coffee, soda, and alcoholic beverages. [sepalika.com]
- Pelvic Pain
Surgical excision is more effective than fenestration/coagulation of endometrioma for pelvic pain but decreases antimullerian hormone. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Wird in 47 Büchern von 1995 bis 2008 erwähnt Seite 249 - Ling FW. for the Pelvic Pain Study Group. Randomized controlled trial of depot leuprolide in patients with chronic pelvic pain and clinically suspected endometriosis. [books.google.de]
The secondary endpoint was the change in dysmenorrhea as evaluated by VAS (visual analog scale) scores before treatment and at 3 and 6 cycles of treatment. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Endometriosis symptoms of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and nonmenstrual pelvic pain also improved with treatment. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Second of 4 parts on cystic adnexal pathology A 25-year-old patient presents with pelvic pain and dyspareunia. A 19-year-old patient with a history of ovarian cystectomy for dermoid cyst reports pelvic pain. [mdedge.com]
- Pelvic Pain in Women
Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of pelvic pain in women of reproductive age [ 1 ] and can be a diagnostic challenge because of its diverse and nonspecific symptoms and findings. [clinmedjournals.org]
Petraglia F,Hornung D, Seitz C, Faustmann T, Gerlinger C, et al. (2012) Reduced pelvic pain in women with endometriosis: efficacy of long-term dienogest treatment. Arch GynecolObstet 285: 167-173. [omicsonline.org]
[…] deep dyspareunia and non-menstrual pelvic pain. [rbmojournal.com]
The most important part in the diagnostic workup of women with suspected endometrioma is obtaining a thorough patient history that contains information regarding previous gynecological surgery, as well as the onset and progression of symptoms. A detailed and meticulous physical examination with an emphasis on abdominal palpation and both bimanual and speculum examination is equally important . Ultrasonography, either vaginal or abdominal are good methods for initial assessment, but usually both should be performed in all women with irregular menstrual cycles in order to identify the underlying cause. Cysts that contain tar-like fluid that may be up to several centimeters in diameter in the ovaries (more frequently in the left) are considered as diagnostic hallmarks of endometriosis . To support these findings, an MRI should be performed, but the gold standard of diagnosis is laparoscopy, which often the main form of treatment as well . This method is not only superior because it provides a direct view into the abdomen and allows visualization of endometriotic cysts, but because it also enables exclusion other pathologies based on macroscopic criteria, such as neoplasms and other lesions in the peritoneum .
Various forms of surgical treatment have been described in literature, including laparoscopic treatment, aspiration cystectomy, use of lasers and complete removal of various parts of the reproductive system through laparotomy . The choice of treatment depends on factors including age, previous surgery and experience of the surgeon. Even though surgery is considered as the optimal therapeutic approach in women suffering from endometriosis, it's efficacy remains controversial, despite the fact that infertility is a significant complication if untreated . The primary reason are recurrence rates have shown to be up to 30% in 5-year follow-ups according to certain reports , which questions the actual use of surgery when it comes to endometrioma. Nevertheless, complications such as cyst rupture and further disease progression are considered as sufficient indications for treatment.
Although the diagnosis can be efficiently made through the use of appropriate imaging studies and laparoscopy, recurrence rate after surgery range from 12-30% after 5 years of follow-up . Additionally, endometrioma is found to be a significant risk factor for infertility, as the formation of ovarian cysts substantially impacts the ovarian architecture and diminishes the ovarian reserves , which is why an early diagnosis is necessary in reducing the chances for permanent inability to conceive.
The etiology seems to be multifactorial, involving genetic, inflammatory and neuroendocrine events . Initial theories have suggested retrograde menstruation as a mode of introduction of uterine tissue into the adjacent female reproductive structures, whereas the proliferation of progenitor cells from the bone marrow into uterine tissue has recently been proposed . The influence of estrogen, evasion of immune defenses, and genetic predisposition have also shown to be important in the etiology of this disorder . The exact cause, however, remains unknown.
Studies have shown that between 17 and 44% of patients with endometriosis suffer from ovarian endometrioma . In fact, this condition is considered as one of the most common gynecological problems seen in clinical practice  . Endometriosis, in general, is most frequently seen in women during childbearing age (between 25 and 35 years of age), mostly due to the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on uterine tissue . Epidemiological reports suggests that the incidence of endometriosis is approximately 4 to 60% in women who to report irregular menstrual cycles, while the cause of infertility was attributed to endometrioma 20 to 30% of cases . Established risk factors include prior gynecological surgery, presence of adhesions and use of ovarian stimulation drugs (OSDs) . Additionally, a seven-fold increased risk is seen in women with first-degree relatives suffering from this condition . On the other hand, pregnancy is the one of the most important protective factors .
The initial theories regarding the development of ovarian endometrioma included a phenomenon of retrograde menstruation, the mechanical introduction of uterine tissue into the ovaries . When endometrial cells reach the ovaries, they attach to the mesothelial cells, establish their own vascular supply and produce ectopic endometrial tissue . Another theory includes impaired immune mechanisms that render the immune system unable to recognize uterine tissue outside of its normal location. Consequently, when macrophages and other leukocytic lineages recognize the presence of foreign tissue in the ovaries, a strong proinflammatory reaction occurs involving cytokine and growth factors such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interleukin 8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) . When VEGF is secreted, the appearance of new blood vessels further nurtures endometrial cells and contributes to further disease progression . Although genetic polymorphism and possibly other mutations have been associated with endometriosis, coupled with the fact that a significantly increased risk has been established in women with a positive family history, the exact pathophysiological mechanism is yet to be confirmed .
The single most important preventive strategy is an early diagnosis with high clinical suspicion of various gynecological diseases in the setting of irregular menstrual cycles and symptoms that may accompany this condition. The role of pregnancy as a protective factor has been well established, which is why surgery is often performed in order to provide enough time for women of childbearing age to conceive and reduce the chances of recurrence.
Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder defined as the presence of uterine glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity . Endometrioma is considered as the most common subtype and is characterized by the appearance of ovarian endometriotic cysts . The cause of endometriosis in general is incompletely understood, but presumably involves inflammatory, genetic and endocrine factors. The roles of estrogen and progesterone, the two most important female reproductive hormones, have been well established in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, whereas genetic susceptibility and defects in the immune mediated mechanisms have also been described . Endometriosis is most frequently diagnosed in women between 25 and 35 years of age, primarily because of the abundant presence of ovarian steroid hormones for the purposes of reproduction . Irregular menstrual cycle is shown to be the most significant risk factor for endometriosis, showing an incidence rate between 40 - 60% in this patient subgroup . Moreover, between 20 to 30% of women who are having difficulties with conception suffer from endometriosis . Additional risk factors include primary gynecological surgery, presence of adhesions and use of ovulation drugs . The clinical presentation may be asymptomatic in many patients , but symptoms such as dysparenuria, dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain and persistent infertility are reported as most common . Menstrual cyclic pain may also be noted . Fatigue, altered bowel movement and urination, as well as migraine headaches are documented . A presumptive diagnosis can be made based on clinical criteria, whereas imaging studies such as pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used for confirmation . Laparoscopy, however, is considered as the gold standard when it comes to identification, but also treatment of endometriomas . Although uniform treatment guidelines have not been established , surgery has been advocated in many patients in order to prevent complications such as endometrioma rupture, development of a pelvic abscess, infertility and further progression of endometriosis . Unfortunately, a high rate of recurrence (6-67%) was observed across various studies after surgery, with much higher rates in patients receiving preoperative, but not postoperative hormonal therapy . Pregnancy has shown to be a protective factor for recurrence, which is why all attempts to enable conception with surgery should be made .
Endometrioma is one of the most common forms of endometriosis, a condition in which uterine tissue is found outside of the uterus, for example in the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes and the surrounding tissues in the abdomen. The cause presumably involves genetic, immune-mediated and hormonal factors, but the exact mechanism of development remains unknown. It is assumed that uterine glands reach the ovaries during retrograde menstruation, when uterine content travels backwards through the fallopian tube and ends in the ovaries. Subsequently, an intense inflammatory reaction occurs as a response to foreign tissue in the ovaries, followed formation of new blood vessels due to stimulation of molecules created by white blood cells. These events paradoxically lead to further growth and proliferation of uterine tissue, with the end-result being formation of endometriotic cysts that can be as large as several centimeters in diameter. This condition is most frequently seen in women between 25-35 years of age and it is established that approximately 60% of women with irregular menstrual cycles develop this condition. Several risk factors has been established, such as prior gynecological surgery, use of ovulation stimulatory drugs (OSDs) and positive family history, since a 7-fold increase risk as seen in women with first-degree relatives who already suffer from endometriosis. Some women may develop no symptoms at all, whereas irregular menstrual cycles that can be extremely painful, altered bowel movements, fatigue and migraine headaches may be reported. To make the diagnosis of endometriosis, it is important to perform a full physical examination that may suggest the origin of the symptoms. Ultrasonography, either abdominal or vaginal, is considered as a good initial diagnostic procedure, while MRI is recommended for confirmation. A procedure called laparoscopy is considered as gold standard, which comprises insertion of small instruments through the abdominal wall and direct visualization of endometrioma. Surgical treatment is aimed to remove endometrioma from the abdomen, but in the case of larger cysts, removal of ovaries or adjacent structures may be necessary. Controversy regarding surgery exists due to the fact that recurrence rate have shown to be as high as 60%, but because infertility is one of the most feared complications of endometrioma, surgery should be performed in order to provide enough time for childbearing women to conceive. In fact, pregnancy has shown to be a protective factor against endometrioma, which is which is why family counseling and pregnancy plans should be considered in the preoperative assessment and follow-up.
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