Presence of Ectopic Uterine Tissue
Patients present with one, or usually more of the following signs and symptoms: pelvic pain, lower abdominal and/or back pain , dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dyschezia, heavy bleeding during and between periods, irregular menstruation and urinary frequency. They may also complain of nausea, bloating and pain during or after exercise. Sometimes the presentation may appear similar to be that of a genito-reproductive tract tumor, in which case a detailed work up can help differentiate the disease from cancer.
Entire Body System
[…] could be; a score of 1–50 was considered mild pain, 51–80 moderate pain and 81–100 severe pain. [dx.doi.org]
[…] include: Painful, even debilitating, menstrual cramps, which may get worse over time Pain during or after sex Pain in the intestine or lower abdomen Painful bowel movements or painful urination during menstrual periods Heavy menstrual periods Premenstrual [nichd.nih.gov]
VAS is the most frequently used pain scale and, together with NRS, seems the best adapted for endometriosis pain measurement. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Treatments for Pain from Endometriosis Treatments for endometriosis pain fall into three general categories: Pain medications Hormone therapy Surgical treatment Pain Medications Pain medications may work well if your pain or other symptoms are mild. [web.archive.org]
Four hundred and thirteen women were evaluated; of these, 383 patients for infertility and 30 patients for pelvic pain and/or cyst. Endometriosis symptoms were compared between fertile and infertile women with primary and secondary infertility. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
However, this has not been confirmed with regard to infertility ( Guzick et al ., 1997 ). [dx.doi.org]
- Inguinal Pain
Such symptoms may include the following: Dysmenorrhea Heavy or irregular bleeding Pelvic pain Lower abdominal or back pain  Dyspareunia Dyschezia (pain on defecation) often with cycles of diarrhea and constipation Bloating, nausea, and vomiting Inguinal [emedicine.medscape.com]
[…] or back pain  Dyspareunia Dyschezia (pain on defecation) - Often with cycles of diarrhea and constipation Bloating, nausea, and vomiting Inguinal pain Pain on micturition and/or urinary frequency Pain during exercise Patients with endometriosis do [emedicine.com]
- Perineal Pain
Pelvic and perineal pain Micrograph showing endometriosis (H&E stain), a common cause of chronic pelvic pain in women. Pelvic pain is pain in the area of the pelvis. Acute pain is more common than chronic pain. [en.wikipedia.org]
Despite long-term continuous medical treatment, the patient presented 4 years later with impaired digestion consisting in constipation alternating with diarrhea, bloating, dyschesia, and pelvic pain. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
They are manifested as cramps, flatulence, painful tenesmus, hyper-peristaltis, progressive constipation or diarrhea alternating with constipation. A bowel obstruction complicates sigmoid endometriosis in approximately 10% of cases [ 4 ]. [panafrican-med-journal.com]
- Abdominal Pain
This was associated with cyclical lower abdominal pains, abdominal swelling, and weight loss. Examination revealed hyperactive bowel sounds with scant fecal matter on rectal examination. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Year Age Symptoms Previous history Episode time Hemoperitoneum Uncu et al [ 25 ] 2008 45 Abdominal pain and nausea Not described The second day of menstruation Yes Akbulut et al [ 26 ] 2009 40 Lower right quadrant pain Lower right abdominal pain before [wjgnet.com]
Keywords: Abdominal pain, endometriosis, male, metaplasia, Mullerian agenesis How to cite this article: Jabr FI, Mani V. An unusual cause of abdominal pain in a male patient: Endometriosis. [avicennajmed.com]
They may also complain of nausea, bloating and pain during or after exercise. [symptoma.com]
[…] menstrual cramping, lower back or abdominal pain, painful bowel movements or painful urination Pain during or after sex Excessive bleeding: heavy periods or bleeding or spotting between periods Gastrointestinal symptoms: diarrhea, constipation, bloating, or nausea [health.ucsd.edu]
Clinical case: A 28-year-old female patient with abdominal pain in the right iliac fossa and pelvic cavity, fever and nausea, exploratory laparotomy is performed with the discovery of sigmoid perforation of the colon, requiring resection of the lesion [medigraphic.com]
Nausea is a new symptom for me. “I now can’t physically sit in a car for two hours because the pain is too unbearable and the pain medication that I once used has now been taken off pharmacy shelves. [news.com.au]
Case presentation A 31-year-old Caucasian woman with increasing abdominal distension, pain and nausea was referred to our department by gastroenterologists at the ED. [jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com]
- Rectal Bleeding
Abstract A 29-year-old woman with known history of endometriosis was referred to colorectal outpatient clinic from gynaecology with a history of intermittent rectal bleeding and no associated bowel symptoms. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Less common symptoms include cyclical rectal bleeding, menorrhagia, diarrhoea and haematuria. [ 2 ] The clinical presentation is variable, with some women experiencing several severe symptoms and others having no symptoms at all. [patient.info]
- Pelvic Mass
Following removal of the pelvic masses with laparotomy, the histological exam revealed an endometriosis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
A fetal pelvic mass was diagnosed at 35 weeks’ gestation and removed on day of life 2, revealing endometriosis. [fertstertdialog.com]
[…] et al. (1991) 201 Various No (stage: frequency of pain symptoms) Marana et al. (1991) 206 Infertility, pain, pelvic mass No (stage, type and site of lesions: severity of pain) Ripps and Martin (1991) 59 Infertility, pain, pelvic mass Yes (deep lesions [dx.doi.org]
- Low Back Pain
It can cause dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, low back pain and infertility. A definitive diagnosis can be made only by means of laparoscopy. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] menstrual bleeding, infertility, abdominal bloating, diarrhea or constipation, low back pain, and/or fatigue. [medicine.umich.edu]
Pain with bowel movements. Long-term pelvic or low back pain that may occur at any time and last for 6 months or more. [nlm.nih.gov]
- Leg Pain
Ultimately, once diagnosed with endometriosis of the retroperitoneal spinal and neural elements, her back and leg pain responded completely to hormonal therapy and then to a hysterectomy and a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
' or bleeding between periods Symptoms of irritable bowel (diarrhoea, constipation, bloating - particularly during your period) Back pain Pain during or after sex Irregular periods Pain when passing urine Leg pain Pelvic pain Loss of 'old' or 'dark blood [endometriosis-uk.org]
Subfertility/infertility, excruciating pain during sexual intercourse, silent kidney loss, searing lower back, hip and leg pain, and severe bowel and bladder dysfunction are among other symptoms experienced by women with endometriosis. [nezhat.org]
Lower back pain or leg pain, especially around the time of menses. Fatigue Infertility Testing Endometriosis can only be diagnosed through laparoscopy and confirmation of the disease can be achieved through pathological biopsy. [resolve.org]
- Pelvic-Girdle Pain
Susannah provides assessment and treatment for pelvic pain conditions such as pelvic floor dysfunction, pelvic girdle pain, vulvar and vaginal pain, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis. [bcwomens.ca]
(also known as visceral pain) pelvic girdle pain (SPD or DSP) Pudendal nerve entrapment Gynecologic Dysmenorrhea—pain during the menstrual period Endometriosis—pain caused by uterine tissue that is outside the uterus. [en.wikipedia.org]
- Pelvic Pain
[…] because it is a common cause of pain and dysmenorrhoea, affecting 45–70% of those with chronic pelvic pain ( Propst and Laufer, 1999 ). [humrep.oxfordjournals.org]
Postoperatively, all of the girls had marked improvement of their pelvic pain based on self-reported pain scales. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
pelvic pain and/or dysmenorrhoea. [doi.org]
Even the common mild forms of endometriosis can strongly affect quality of life due to dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dyschezia, or subfertility. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Decreasing dyspareunia and dysmenorrhea in women with endometriosis via a manual physical therapy: Results from two independent studies Journal of Endometriosis 2011; 3(4): 188 - 196 Article Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE DOI:10.5301/JE.2012.9088 Authors Belinda [web.archive.org]
[…] on the Mankoski Pain Scale for analyzing the effect on dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia (n=18), respectively. [web.archive.org]
Even the common mild forms of endometriosis can strongly affect quality of life due to dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dyschezia, or subfertility. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Assessment of deep dyspareunia was not available or not reliable in 309 cases. [dx.doi.org]
The most common types of pain are dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Endometriosis can also reduce fertility. [sbu.se]
- Adnexal Mass
A set of 38 patients with surgically evaluated adnexal masses, but no hydrosalpinx, were randomly chosen as control subjects. [pubs.rsna.org]
Oral CHM may have a better overall treatment effect than danazol; it may be more effective in relieving dysmenorrhoea and shrinking adnexal masses when used in conjunction with a CHM enema. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Bladder involvement, causing dysuria and hematuria, occurs in a very small number of endometriosis patients. The patient presented at age 12 years with dysuria and pelvic pain. Laparoscopy revealed stage I endometriosis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Symptoms can include severe pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysuria, infertility, and fatigue. The pathogenesis is unclear. Hormonal therapy controls symptoms in some women; others require surgery, which may not be effective. [nejm.org]
Work up includes a detailed history, physical examination and tests.
- Complete blood count
- Blood cultures (to rule out STDs)
- Serum cancer antigen test (Ca-125)
- Antibody testing against Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen (Gal beta1-3GalNAc) bearing proteins
The following imaging studies may be performed:
Diagnosis is based on physical findings and test results. Imaging studies in particular play an important role in disease identification.
- Ovarian Mass
Diagnosis of ovarian masses. J Reprod Med 1990 ; 35:491-495. Medline, Google Scholar 10 Bourne T, Campbell S, Steer C, Whitehead M, Collins W. Transvaginal colour flow imaging: a possible new screening technique for ovarian cancer. [dx.doi.org]
We at the Institute, however, council women that if their ovarian masses prove benign, radical surgery would be unnecessary. Often times, during surgery, we find the presence of an endometrioma (Endometriosis of the ovary). [alternativesurgery.com]
Guerriero S, Mais V, Ajossa S: The role of endovaginal ultrasound in differentiating endometriomas from other ovarian cysts. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1995; 22(1): 20-2 [Medline]. Jeong YY, Outwater EK, Kang HK: Imaging evaluation of ovarian masses. [web.archive.org]
It includes the use of analgesics to relieve pelvic and abdominal pain and the use of hormone therapy like the use of Danazol or progesterone. Oral contraceptives have proved to be effective in slowing disease progression. In many women, menopause (natural or surgical) will abate the process .
If the disease cannot be satisfactorily managed conservatively, it may be treated surgically. Surgical intervention is of two types. The first is called conservative or semi conservative surgical intervention in which reproductive organs are spared. The second type, called radical surgery, involves a total hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy as well as adhesiolysis. This type is usually only performed in women past the child bearing age or in women with very serious, grade IV endometriosis.
It is a progressive disease with a high rate of recurrence even after treatment. However, endometriosis has been found to resolve spontaneously in one third of women who are not actively treated . Prognosis depends upon the stage of the disease. It has 4 stages.
- Stage I: Only superficial lesions and adhesions are present.
- Stage II: Some superficial as well as deep lesions are present
- Stage III: Presence of superficial and deep lesions as well as presence of endometriomas in the ovaries
- Stage IV: All the above findings plus large endometriomas and extensive adhesions.
The exact cause of endometriosis is unknown. Several factors have been implicated in its development. The two main theories; metastatic and metaplastic theories have been explained in a later section. Humoral antibodies to endometrial tissue have also been found in sera of women with endometriosis . Some women may also be genetically predisposed to this condition. Overall it is thought to be a collection of several factors, not just one, that ultimately cause this disease. As for why some women may be prone to this disease as opposed to those who are not, studies reveal that it varies on individual-based responses.
Endometriosis is not a common occurrence. Approximately, endometriosis occurs in roughly 4–10% of women . It has a prevalence of 7-10% in the United States.
It is principally a disease of women in their active reproductive life. So it is common in women aged between mid-twenties and early-forties.
There does not appear to be any predilection to a particular race or ethnicity.
The most common site of ectopic endometrial tissue is the ovary. The next most common sites, in decreasing order of frequency are: Uterine ligaments, rectovaginal septum, cul de sac, pelvic peritoneum, large and small bowel, appendix, cervical mucosa, vagina, fallopian tubes and laparotomy scars. Two major theories for the development of endometriosis have been proposed , they are:
- Metastatic theory
According to this theory, there is lymphatic or hematogenous ‘metastasis’ of endometrial tissue to abnormal locations. Retrograde menstruation may be the cause of peritoneal endometriosis, for example.
- Metaplastic theory
According to this theory, endometrial tissue may itself arise directly from coelomic epithelium at extrauterine sites. This coelomic epithelium is from which the mullerian ducts and ultimately the endometrium itself originates during embryonic development. Under the influence of factors that are still unclear, there may be abnormal production of endometrial gland and stromal cells in sites other than the uterus.
Specific abnormalities that distinguish normal endometrium from endometriotic tissue are highlighted below .
- Profound activation of inflammatory cascade, characterized by high levels of prostaglandin E2, IL-1B, IL-6 and TNF.
- Marked upregulation of estrogen production mainly due to high levels of the key steroidogenic enzyme aromatase .
Endometriosis may be prevented or at least slowed by use of birth control pills . Birth control pills act to decrease the production of hormones by the body which are necessary to support the endometrial tissue’s growth and division.
Endometriosis is defined as ectopic production or occurrence of endometrial tissue in extrauterine sites . Endometrium is the innermost layer lining the uterus. Due to some reasons, as discussed in detail in later sections, this tissue may occur abnormally in extrauterine sites. Commonly, the ectopic tissue consists of both the endometrial glands and the stroma. It may occur anywhere in the body but typically remains within the abdominal and pelvic cavities. It may be confused with cancer so a thorough knowledge of the disease and its manifestation is imperative for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Endometriosis can be defined as abnormal presence of endometrial tissue (cells of the inner lining of the uterus), outside of the uterus. For example, endometrial tissue may abnormally occur in the ovaries, uterine ligaments, fallopian tubes, peritoneum, as well as other sites.
There is no known specific cause of endometriosis. It may be genetic or due to some immune dysfunction or it may simply be due to displacement and/or abnormal growth of uterine tissue in sites other than the uterus.
It may be asymptomatic but in symptomatic patients, it presents with painful menstruation, pelvic pain and in severe cases, infertility. Other symptoms include pain during urination or defecation, heavy menstrual bleeding, mid-cycle bleeding, nausea and vomiting and lower back pain.
Treatment involves the use of contraceptive pills and painkillers. Surgical intervention may be needed in severe cases.
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