Endophthalmitis is an infection of the vitreous body and the inner coat of the eye caused by bacteria or fungi. Inoculation of microorganisms from the external environment during surgery, trauma and hematogenous spread from distant sites in the body are the two modes of infection. Without an early diagnosis, blindness can develop rapidly.
Depending on the cause, the clinical presentation may somewhat vary:
A thorough patient history is the first step in workup, as it can reveal vital clues regarding risk factors and pathogenesis of eye-related problems. Many authors suggest that typical signs and symptoms encountered in endophthalmitis are sufficient to make a diagnosis   , but fundoscopy and a slit-lamp examination to support these findings must be performed. Vitritis, corneal infection, hypopyon, and clumps of thick material in the anterior chamber are some of the most common findings . Imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT scan) must be performed in the post-traumatic eye injury to exclude the presence of foreign bodies in other sites . To confirm the underlying cause and determine optimal therapy, microbiological studies are necessary. A sampling of the vitreous humor, either by performing a vitrectomy or needle aspiration, is needed in order to obtain a viable sample for the investigation  . Identification of bacterial or fungal pathogens are performed by culturing the samples in specific media, and vitrectomy carries a significantly higher rate of positive results compared to needle sample aspiration . Detection of microorganisms by molecular techniques - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently emerged as a novel method with superior results compared to cultivation and other laboratory tests (eg. serology), but their introduction in regular practice is yet to occur   .