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Enterovirus Infection


Presentation

  • Nine days later, she presented with ataxic and wide-based gait and dysmetria affecting the extremities, with an absence of sensory nerve action potentials in the upper and lower limbs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The purpose of our study was to increase awareness of the clinical presentations of neonatal enteroviral infections, especially in summer months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: A total of 780 pediatric inpatients with an acute enterovirus infection were included in this study, of whom 83 (10.6%) presented no exanthema.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • GP can present acutely after a viral-like gastrointestinal illness resulting in speculation that in some patients, neurologic damage caused by the infection might underlie the pathogenesis of idiopathic gastroparesis (IGP).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The purpose of the present study was to compare sensitivity of two innovative laboratory methods, that is, the DR.EV microchip method (DR.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • Author information 1 Pediatric Department, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain. amartinez@hsjdbcn.org Abstract Infants under 3 months of age with fever without source (FWS) generally undergo a full, invasive septic evaluation to exclude invasive[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical manifestations of enterovirus infections include fever, hand, foot, and mouth disease, and herpangina.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here, we report the case of a 3-year-old girl who was initially diagnosed with enterovirus infection based on the presentation of fevers, rashes on all extremities, and ulceration over the posterior pharynx.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • One hundred four (87%) infants developed fever and 25 (21%) infants had diarrhea. A clinical diagnosis of sepsis was made in 42 (35%) infants and meningitis was diagnosed in 28 (24%) cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Headache and fever occur in about one in five patients. The disease runs its course in about 10 days.[encyclopedia.com]
Fatigue
  • Chronic enterovirus infection has been found in the stomach and terminal ileum of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although enterovirus protein, RNA and non-cytopathic viruses have been demonstrated in the stomach biopsies of patients with myalgia encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), causality for chronic diseases is difficult to establish without[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aetiology for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) remains elusive although enteroviruses have been implicated as one of the causes by a number of studies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "Chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical condition associated with immune activation". Lancet. Chia, John (November 2005). "The role of enterovirus in chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Clinical Pathology.[me-pedia.org]
  • More serious symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis (severe headache and stiff neck), and myocarditis (chest pain and extreme fatigue) require the immediate attention of one of our physicians. These complications are very rare.[afkpeds.org]
Collapse
  • Newborns are at a higher risk of severe disease including meningoencephalitis, sepsis syndrome, cardiovascular collapse, or hepatitis. The mechanism of heart failure in patients with enterovirus infection remains unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cough
  • Symptoms You could have a fever, a runny nose, sneezing, and coughing. You might feel achy, too. The virus can also lead to wheezing and trouble breathing, especially in children who have asthma or other respiratory problems.[webmd.com]
  • The 2-year-old boy with good past health has presented with fever, cough, runny nose and shortness of breath since July 18. He was sent to Queen Mary Hospital for medical attention on the next day and was admitted.[info.gov.hk]
  • The virus is spread through secretions like saliva and mucus and causes symptoms including fever, runny nose and cough. In severe cases, wheezing and difficulty breathing may occur.[healthination.com]
  • Most infections either do not cause symptoms or cause mild illnesses with symptoms such as runny nose, cough , sneezing, fever , rash , mouth blisters (herpangina), and body aches.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • This may include upper respiratory symptoms much like a “cold” with a runny nose, sore throat and cough. Headache is common with an enterovirus infection. Other children may develop a flu-like illness with fever and muscle aches.[afkpeds.org]
Diarrhea
  • One hundred four (87%) infants developed fever and 25 (21%) infants had diarrhea. A clinical diagnosis of sepsis was made in 42 (35%) infants and meningitis was diagnosed in 28 (24%) cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Vomiting and diarrhea are treated according to “vomiting and diarrhea” guidelines in this handbook. Give plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Sometimes Zofran or promethazine is prescribed to control nausea.[afkpeds.org]
  • Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.[icd10data.com]
  • Patient 7 died of cryptosporidial diarrhea 7 months after pleconaril treatment.[doi.org]
  • […] advance to fulminant liver failure, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). 5,8 Other gastrointestinal symptoms/complications of enteroviral infections in neonates may include generalized vomiting, abdominal distention, and diarrhea[healio.com]
Regurgitation
  • The echocardiographic findings of group I were a lower fractional shortening, lower ejection fraction, and more severe and higher incidence of mitral regurgitation (p 0.01) than in groups II and III, but there were no significant differences in end-systolic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Vascular Disease
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood samples from 72 patients with acute stroke (study group) and 35 patients without vascular disease (control group) were investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the presence of enterovirus RNA, by[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Myalgia
  • Although enterovirus protein, RNA and non-cytopathic viruses have been demonstrated in the stomach biopsies of patients with myalgia encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), causality for chronic diseases is difficult to establish without[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Psychomotor Retardation
  • Eighteen had neurologic sequelae, including 7 with limb weakness, 5 with epilepsy, 2 with sixth cranial nerve palsy, 3 with cerebral palsy, 4 with psychomotor retardation, 2 with spasticity, and 1 with hearing loss.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Headache
  • Of these cases, 97.9% (326/333) had fever with peak body temperature at 38.9 degrees C, 85% had headache and vomiting, 70% had meningeal signs, 64% had neck stiffness, 16.6% (55/333) had change of consciousness, 5.4% (18/333) had seizures and 5.2% (17[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Headache and fever occur in about one in five patients. The disease runs its course in about 10 days.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Headache is common with an enterovirus infection. Other children may develop a flu-like illness with fever and muscle aches. Many enteroviral infections cause a rash.[afkpeds.org]
  • In the majority of infections caused by both polio and non-polioviruses, an infected person may be asymptomatic (not show any symptoms) or only have mild symptoms, including fever, headache, sore throat, loss of appetite, and abdominal discomfort that[medicinenet.com]
Flaccid Paralysis
  • The incidence of acute flaccid paralysis has been on a declining trend with the global efforts on eradication of polio virus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Paralysis Formerly predominately seen in patients with paralytic poliomyelitis, in the era of widespread polio vaccination acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) has recently emerged in association with EV68 outbreaks in the US and Canada. 4, 13 Additionally,[journals.lww.com]
  • Paralysis (infrequent in both polio and non-polio intro viral infections): flaccid paralysis that is often asymmetric with proximal extremity muscles affected; lower extremities affected more commonly than upper extremities (poliovirus, enterovirus 71[medicinenet.com]
  • Infants and persons with weakened immune systems may have more severe disease affecting the heart (myocarditis and pericarditis) and nervous system (meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis).[health.hawaii.gov]
Areflexia
  • Abstract Miller-Fisher is a rare syndrome of childhood that presents with external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysmetria
  • Nine days later, she presented with ataxic and wide-based gait and dysmetria affecting the extremities, with an absence of sensory nerve action potentials in the upper and lower limbs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Flaccid Paralysis of the Upper Extremity
  • This is a case of acute onset flaccid paralysis of left upper extremity in a fully immunized 5 year old child in New York.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • METHODS: Eleven patients referred with a diagnosis of GP underwent workup to exclude known causes of GP.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Narrow QRS Complex
  • Electrocardiogram showed tachycardia, with narrow QRS complexes (atrial tachycardia) and heart rate up to 280/min. In order to convert the rhythm, the patient was administered adenosine and amiodarone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Eight out of nine received EV treatment with antivirals and/or immune therapies, with a wide degree of variability in treatment regimens. Four out of eight who received EV treatment had symptomatic improvement. One patient had stable symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This case is the first, to the best of our knowledge, of acute necrotizing encephalopathy reported from Saudi Arabia with a good outcome despite severe magnetic resonance imaging findings and delay in the steroid treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment: The treatment of an enterovirus infection is supportive and determined by the symptoms present. Because it is a virus, there is no definitive treatment to stop this infection.[afkpeds.org]
  • Post Non-Polio Enterovirus Infection - Treatment What was the treatment for your enterovirus infection? If your child was the one who was ill, please tell us your child's treatment. Post CONTINUE SCROLLING FOR RELATED ARTICLE[emedicinehealth.com]
  • The use of sensitive molecular-based amplification methods offers potential benefits for early diagnosis and timely treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Prognosis of mild congenital EV infections is quite good if reanimation procedures are available. Prognosis of severe congenital EV infections is poor and the disease has been reported to be fatal.[orpha.net]
  • We have recorded a severe form of perinatal enterovirus infection involving the vital prognosis of the newborn.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fulminant type 1 diabetes is characterized by the rapid onset of severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, with subsequent poor prognosis of diabetes complications. Causative mechanisms for accelerated beta-cell failure are unclear.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In most cases, the prognosis (outcomes) of enterovirus infections is good with no complications; however, the prognosis worsens as the severity of infection increases and when complications develop.[medicinenet.com]
  • Non-Polio Enterovirus Infection Prognosis The vast majority of cases of non-polio enterovirus infection do not cause symptoms or cause mild illness with an excellent prognosis. Symptoms tend to go away on their own after seven to 10 days.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • Abstract Persistence of enteroviruses in heart tissue has been implicated in the etiology of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Therefore, we determined the prevalence of enterovirus RNA in heart tissue from patients with end-stage IDC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Despite evidence supporting an association between enterovirus (EV) infection and type 1 diabetes, the etiological mechanism(s) for EV-induced beta cell destruction is(are) not well understood.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of HUS in VTEC-negative cases remains poorly understood. Before the association between VTEC infection and HUS was recognized, sporadic cases of HUS with enterovirus infection were reported in the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This is the first study to identify EV as a possible infectious etiology of IGP.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This finding opens new opportunities for studying the viral etiology of type 1 diabetes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Some significant associations between types and epidemiologic and clinical findings were observed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiologic and seroprevalence studies have associated enterovirus infection with development of prediabetic autoimmunity and with the onset of clinical diabetes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The epidemiological, virological, and clinical data of 119 infants less than 30 days of age with enteroviral infection collected from January 1993 to November 1995 by the diagnostic virology laboratories were analyzed retrospectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Few studies have simultaneously investigated the epidemiological characteristics of all EVs in children in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China, while epidemiology of enterovirus infections in children was well defined in other countries [ 10 - 13 ].[virologyj.biomedcentral.com]
  • This study was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HPeV and EV infection in febrile young infants in Japan.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Enteroviral encephalitis in children: clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment advances. Pathog Glob Health. 2014;108:216–222 12. Abzug MJ. The enteroviruses: problems in need of treatments. J Infect. 2014;68:108–114 13.[journals.lww.com]
  • Understanding the pathophysiology of the enteroviruses is based on the study of prototypic members of the genus: the polioviruses.[els.net]

Prevention

  • Better monitoring of drinking-water may prevent other cases of non-polio enterovirus infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention Learn how non-polio enterovirus infections can be prevented. Surveillance Discover how non-polio enterovirus infections are monitored. Report a problem or mistake on this page Thank you for your help! You will not receive a reply.[canada.ca]
  • We aimed to prevent development of severe illness in contacts of affected neonates following a ministry of health advisory during the summer of 2011 warning of increased neonatal enteroviral morbidity and mortality in Israel.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In medical organizations, a comprehensive plan of measures for the prevention of enterovirus infection is involved.[cheladmin.ru]
  • We have now analyzed the role of enterovirus infections in the initiation of autoimmunity in children who have tested positive for diabetes-associated autoantibodies in a prospective study starting at birth (the Finnish Diabetes Prediction and Prevention[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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