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Epicanthal Folds


Presentation

  • Babak Azizzadeh, Mark Murphy, Calvin Johnson, Guy Massry, and Rebecca Fitzgerald, presents multiple facial rejuvenation techniques by experts in the fields of plastic surgery, facial plastic surgery, otolaryngology, oculoplastic surgery and dermatology[books.google.de]
  • The author presents a surgical procedure for aesthetic correction of the medial epicanthal fold.[link.springer.com]
  • It is not present universally in these people and it occurs rarely in other groups. The epicanthic folds vary among the nine geographic races.[wikiexclusive.com]
  • It is seen in both Asian and Occidental eyelids, but is much more common and distinctive in Asian eyelids, where it seems to be present to at least some degree in almost every patient.[blepharoplasty101.com]
Failure to Thrive in Infancy
  • […] to thrive in infancy Hyperkinesis Global brain atrophy Hip contracture Profound global developmental delay Generalized tonic seizures Profound static encephalopathy Atrial septal defect Protuberant abdomen Hearing impairment Hypoplastic nipples Milia[mendelian.co]
Sighing
  • You can sigh in relief now. It's easier for eye boogers (gross!) to hide in the folds which is pretty annoying but I still like my epicanthal folds.[wattpad.com]
Bruxism
  • […] of the dentition Congenital onset Proteinuria Craniosynostosis Sparse hair Abnormality of the kidney Hematuria Ectodermal dysplasia Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia Hypospadias Pes cavus Prominent superficial veins Deeply set eye Prominent metopic ridge Bruxism[mendelian.co]
Sparse Eyebrows
  • […] behavior Retinopathy Hepatosplenomegaly Retinal dystrophy Thick vermilion border Abdominal pain Elevated hepatic transaminase Full cheeks Broad nasal tip Thick lower lip vermilion Short neck Absence seizures Colpocephaly Anxiety Hypoplastic toenails Sparse[mendelian.co]
Sparse Eyelashes
  • eyelashes Facial asymmetry Unsteady gait Delayed myelination Cortical visual impairment Epileptic encephalopathy CNS hypomyelination Broad-based gait Overlapping toe Neurodevelopmental delay Flexion contracture Trigonocephaly Nephritis Syndactyly Internally[mendelian.co]
Decrease in Height
  • These folds are largest and closest together in the duodenum distal to the major duodenal papilla, they decrease in height and number through the distal jejunum, and they disappear in the distal ileum.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Lacrimation
  • Topics discussed, in addition to clearly illustrated basic oculoplastic procedures, include surgical innovations ranging from the Sonopet system for safer removal of bone in lacrimal surgery to the development of complex image guidance technology for[books.google.de]
  • Epicanthus supraciliaris : It occurs when the free fold originates from the midpoint of the eyebrow and runs down on the side of nostril, ending over the anterior lacrimal crest. It obscures medial canthus and caruncle.[aimu.us]
  • […] tarsalis : fold most prominent along upper eyelid Epicanthus inversus : most prominent along lower eyelid Epicanthus palpebralis : involves both upper and lower eyelids Epicanthus superciliaris : fold originates from the brow and follows down to the lacrimal[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • Microscopically, the intermuscular fibers of the preseptal orbicularis muscle (muscle with small fasciculi) extended anteriorly to reach the skin (Fig. 1), and those of the pretarsal orbicularis muscle (muscle with large fasciculi) went from the posterior lacrimal[journals.lww.com]
Blepharitis
  • , epicanthic folds are prominent. [17] Other examples are fetal alcohol syndrome , phenylketonuria , and Turner syndrome . [18] See also Double eyelid surgery Epicanthoplasty , the surgical modification of epicanthic folds Human physical appearance Blepharitis[ipfs.io]
  • […] pejorative and inaccurate and is no longer in common use about medical conditions. [17] In Zellweger syndrome , epicanthic folds are prominent. [18] Other examples are fetal alcohol syndrome , phenylketonuria , and Turner syndrome . [19] See also [ edit ] Blepharitis[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] considered pejorative and inaccurate and is no longer in common use about medical conditions. [17] In Zellweger syndrome , epicanthic folds are prominent. [18] Other examples are fetal alcohol syndrome , phenylketonuria , and Turner syndrome . [19] See also Blepharitis[popflock.com]
Snow Blindness
  • It has also been postulated that the fold itself might provide a level of protection from snow blindness .[en.wikipedia.org]
Periorbital Fullness
  • fullness High forehead Bilateral ptosis Cognitive impairment Edema Dolichocephaly Motor delay Ventriculomegaly Round face High palate Myopathic facies Short nose Upslanted palpebral fissure Encephalopathy Thin vermilion border Appendicular hypotonia[mendelian.co]
Delayed Speech and Language Development
  • speech and language development Retrognathia Abnormality of the pinna Neurological speech impairment Small for gestational age Downturned corners of mouth Highly arched eyebrow Bifid uvula Short palpebral fissure Expressive language delay Need help with[mendelian.co]
Phenylketonuria
  • However, it may also be due to certain medical conditions, including: Down syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome Turner syndrome Phenylketonuria (PKU) Williams syndrome Noonan syndrome Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome Blepharophimosis syndrome Home Care There is usually[healthmedicinet.com]
  • However, they may also be due to certain medical conditions, including: Down syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome Turner syndrome Phenylketonuria (PKU) Williams syndrome Noonan syndrome Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome Blepharophimosis syndrome Home Care In most[baptistjax.com]

Treatment

  • This approach will enable the practitioner to make the most accurate diagnosis and choose the most effective treatment option.[books.google.de]
  • A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.[centurahealthinfo.org]
  • Comparison among techniques will help form universally accepted algorithm or consensus in epicanthus treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Majority of children of Asian ancestry lose their folds during and after puberty. Surgical correction is successful in majority of cases of epicanthus. References : Traboulsi Elias I. Genetic Diseases of the Eye. Second Edition.[aimu.us]
  • Prognosis [ edit ] Currently, no cure for Zellweger syndrome is known, nor is a course of treatment made standard. Infections should be guarded against to prevent such complications as pneumonia and respiratory distress.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] dysfunction (recurrent infections) - increased cancer risk, esp hepatoblastoma - cleft lip/palate Ix: - EEG shows characteristic short burst suppression pattern arising from each hemisphere (not hypsarrhythmia) - MRI shows absence of corpus collosum VERY poor prognosis[quizlet.com]

Etiology

  • Mild folds cover less than one third of the caruncle, moderate covers half, and severe will cover most or all of the caruncle. [5] Etiology Tension on the skin of the medial canthus is caused by ectopic orbicularis oculi muscle fibers and connective tissue[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • We disclosed the anatomical etiologic factors of the epicanthal folds, although all specimens were the epicanthus tarsalis. The epicanthal fold formation depended on the intermuscular fibers of the oblique direction preseptal orbicularis muscle.[journals.lww.com]
  • The etiology is an extra X chromosome. The most common chromosomal pattern is 47,XXY, but other variants can occur including 48,XXYY, 48,XXXY, and 49,XXXXY.[hawaii.edu]

Epidemiology

  • A small interpupillary distance (ie, the distance between 2 pupils) also can give the appearance of pseudoesotropia. [2] Epidemiology Frequency United States Pseudoesotropia is a condition with variable frequency.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • "Pathophysiology of Selected Genetic Diseases". Pathophysiology of disease : an introduction to clinical medicine (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 2. ISBN 978-0-07-162167-0. Pham, V. (2010).[ipfs.io]
  • "Pathophysiology of Selected Genetic Diseases". Pathophysiology of disease : an introduction to clinical medicine (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 2. ISBN 978-0-07-162167-0 .[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Pathophysiology This condition most commonly occurs in infants when a flat nasal bridge and prominent epicanthal folds tend to obscure the nasal portion of the sclera.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Noonan Syndrome Noonan syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that prevents normal development of different parts of the body. This may result in chest deformity, undescended testicles and heart defects.[ic.steadyhealth.com]
  • As a result of drinking alcohol is a private determination that a girl makes, it’s a preventable drawback.[articles.org]
  • The use of local anesthetic agent or utilize precurarization with succinylcholine after administering a high likelihood of vessel injury, and the breathing circuit to prevent accumulation. Management.[smj.org.sa]
  • Infections should be guarded against to prevent such complications as pneumonia and respiratory distress. Other treatment is symptomatic and supportive.[en.wikipedia.org]

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