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Epilepsia Partialis Continua

Kojewnikoff's Syndrome


Presentation

  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is an uncommon rapidly progressive neurological disorder which can have protean clinical presentations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epilepsy
  • Since this infection does not directly involve the brain it might not appear as a possible cause of epilepsy, but has been shown that meningitis can cause epilepsy, which would give rise to the possibility of developing epilepsy partialis continua.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • GAD-Ab have been recently reported in association with rare forms of refractory epilepsy, with or without association to T1DM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Article Navigation 1 The Epilepsy Research Group 3 The Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy Chalfont St Peter, UK Correspondence to: Dr O. C.[brain.oxfordjournals.org]
  • Go to Epilepsy and Seizures, Status Epilepticus, and Partial Epilepsies for an overview of these topics. Patient education For patient information, see the Brain and Nervous System Center, as well as Epilepsy.[emedicine.com]
Progressive Dementia
  • A diagnosis of CJD should be considered when a rapidly progressive dementia is accompanied by abnormal movements. EPC, although rare, may present as an initial manifestation of CJD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Article Access Statistics Viewed 3697 Printed 110 Emailed 2 PDF Downloaded 171 Comments 2 Neurosyphilis presenting with rapidly progressive dementia and epilepsia partialis continua Anirban Mahanta,Lakshya J.[neurologyindia.com]
Limb Pain
  • Generally mild side effects included transient head and limb pain, and limb stiffening during high-frequency rTMS trains.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pharyngitis
  • The opercular syndrome is a rare form of pseudobulbar palsy that is characterized by automatic-voluntary dissociative weakness of the face in addition to weak masticatory and pharyngeal muscles.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aphthous Ulceration
  • Levamisole is used as an immunomodulating medication in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers. Evidence suggests that it can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ulcers for which she was prescribed levamisole.[emedicine.com]
Ulcer
  • Levamisole is used as an immunomodulating medication in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers. Evidence suggests that it can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] white matter lesions in cortical and subcortical regions on MRI after taking levamisole 1 g/wk for 2 weeks. [73] This patient had no prior family history of metabolic or neurologic diseases, nor did she have any medical conditions besides oral aphthous ulcers[emedicine.com]
Involuntary Movements
  • We describe a young Chinese patient with continuous involuntary movements of the contralateral hand affected by schizencephaly.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysarthria
  • The patient improved with antiviral treatment except for very mild residual dysarthria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Videotape the patient speaking to assess for dysarthria and prosody of speech as well as voice amplitude. Videotape the examination of frontal release signs (glabellar, snout, and palmomental signs).[movementdisorders.org]
  • Intracortical conduction time could be particularly prolonged because of the synaptic abnormalities that have been observed. 60 Postanoxic Encephalopathy Postanoxic encephalopathy is characterized by dysarthria, ataxia, pyramidal signs, rigidity, epilepsy[clinicalgate.com]
Hemianesthesia
  • EPC is as follows: Motor deficit (56%) - Tetraparesis (4%), hemiparesis (23.3%), monoparesis (13.3%), oculomotor paresis (0.7%), facial paresis (10%), hypoglossal paresis (1.9%), soft palate paresis (0-3%) Sensory deficit (21%) - Hemihypoesthesia and hemianesthesia[emedicine.com]
Cranial Neuropathy
  • Whilst cranial neuropathy is the commonest presenting feature in adults with neurosarcoidosis, paediatric patients are more likely to present with seizures. Diagnosis presents a clinical challenge as a result of its protean manifestations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • CONCLUSIONS: The present case suggests that the possibility of central nervous system involvement by HIV-1 should be taken into account in the diagnostic workup of patients with EPC. This case also indicates that treatment can be effective.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Bartonella Henselae
  • Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a world-wide, diffuse, non-epidemic infection caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Bartonella henselae.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • We present an interesting case of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) responsive to valproate treatment as an acute manifestation of cortical ischaemia in the course of vasospasm after subarachnoid bleeding A 72-year-old, right-handed woman suffering a[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • KEYWORDS: epilepsia partialis continua; focal status epilepticus with motor symptoms; prognosis; recurrence; semiology [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis Usually bad, often associated with residual or progressive neurocognitive deficits. Differential diagnosis Encephalitis of any cause. Kozhevnikov-Rasmussen syndrome. Management options* Seizures are resistant to AEDs.[epilepsy.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology, clinical and EEG data, and outcome were categorized and analyzed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Pagina 67 - Socioeconomic characteristics of childhood seizure disorders in the New Haven area: an epidemiologic study ‎ Pagina 67 - Epilepsy after penetrating head injury. I. Clinical correlates: a report of the Vietnam Head Injury Study.[books.google.it]
  • For this reason, no epidemiologic data exist.[neupsykey.com]
  • Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention. Lancet Neurol (2016) 15:1075–88. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30158-2 CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar 7.[frontiersin.org]
  • Epidemiology Since the first description by Kojewnikoff, a number of isolated case reports and small case series have elucidated this syndrome further. However, few epidemiologic studies have been performed.[emedicine.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • A new pathophysiological model is thus proposed for the occurrence of epilepsia partialis continua in both cortical and subcortical disease processes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Overall, our results strongly indicate that a correct NCSE diagnosis is mandatory to prevent further deterioration in these patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Transplantation Substance Use and Addiction Surgery Surgical Innovation Surgical Pearls Teachable Moment Technology and Finance The Rational Clinical Examination Tobacco and e-Cigarettes Toxicology Trauma and Injury Treatment Adherence United States Preventive[edhub.ama-assn.org]
  • The cortex is endowed with powerful lateral inhibition, which prevents the spread of epileptogenic stimulus into surrounding regions.[jemds.com]

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