Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum

Erythema toxicum neonatorum is a benign and frequent condition of the newborn infants. The condition is of unclear etiology, it's more often seen in term infants than in premature ones, and it's characterized by generalized skin rash, evanescent macules, papules, and pustules in an otherwise well and healthy child, that resolve with no intervention.


Presentation

Erythema toxicum neonatorum usually appears after the age of 3 days and within the first two weeks of life, but they may rarely occur slightly before or later [1] [2]. Manifestations consist of macular erythema, papules, pustules, and vesicles. Particular skin changes resolve by themselves in several minutes to hours, leaving no sequelae [3]. As old lesions disappear, new ones appear and the total duration of erythema toxicum neonatorum is from five days to two weeks. The patient is not febrile during this period and signs such as lethargy or irritability are absent. Mucosal involvement is almost always absent and, when present, the physician should consider herpes simplex infection or candidiasis, especially if present in the mother [4]. Once the disease is resolved, recurrence is infrequent but mild episodes are possible before the sixth week of life.

The skin lesions with an erythematous halo spread centripetally. They are usually absent in the palmar and plantar areas while the lesions are most often found on the face [5], trunk, proximal limbs, and buttocks but may even involve the genitalia [6]. Their size is variable, they are blanchable, and have irregular margins.

Caucasian infants born after a long labor by vaginal delivery, who have a higher birth weight and are born at a higher gestational age are more likely to develop erythema toxicum neonatorum and manifestations tend to have a longer duration. Newborns that receive infant formulas, those born in the summer or autumn whose mothers are younger than 30 years are also at a higher risk [7].

Asymptomatic
  • January 1990 Patient details Age Baby / infant Localisation Head / face / forehead Primary Lesions Papule / erythematous Pustule / follicular Erythema Pathophysiology tumors and proliferative diseases / cysts / milia / erythema toxicum neonatorum Symptoms Asymptomatic[dermquest.com]
  • This is a benign, asymptomatic, self-limited skin condition with no known sequelae.[emedicine.com]
  • Called also fifth disease. erythema margina tum a type of erythema multiforme in which the reddened areas are disk-shaped, with elevated edges. erythema margina tum rheuma ticum a superficial, often asymptomatic, form of gyrate erythema associated with[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Chills
Cerebral Palsy
  • Palsy Cochlear Implant : Bimodal Fitting (Cochlear Implant and Hearing Aid Usage) Child Development Delay in Walking Parenting Skills Parenting Skills – Managing Tantrum Child Abuse Child Abuse Shaken Baby Syndrome Physical Abuse Myth & Reality Bully[myhealth.gov.my]
Cutaneous Manifestation
  • A positive correlation has been recognized between the length of labor and both the incidence of erythema toxicum neonatorum and the duration of the cutaneous manifestations.[medigoo.com]
  • A positive correlation has been recognized between the length of labor and both the incidence of erythema toxicum neonatorum and the duration of the cutaneous manifestations Laboratory Studies Erythema toxicum neonatorum (ETN) is diagnosed clinically[dermaamin.com]
  • A positive correlation has been recognized between the length of labor and both the incidence of erythema toxicum neonatorum and the duration of the cutaneous manifestations. [11, 12] Epidemiology Frequency United States A review of incidence in the United[emedicine.com]
  • Clinico epidemiological study of cutaneous manifestations in the neonate. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2000; 66: 26-8. In article PubMed [15] Sachdeva M, Kaur S, Nagpal M, Dewan SP. Cutaneous lesions in newborn.[pubs.sciepub.com]
Increased Birth Weight
  • There is no racial or sexual predilection, but there is an increased frequency among infants with increased birth weight and gestational age. Recurrence has been reported during the first two weeks.[healthzene.com]
Suggestibility
  • This process may possibly be integral in developing the new immune system. [7] The high frequency of eosinophilia suggests an allergic basis, leading some authors to suggest that erythema toxicum neonatorum may be an immediate hypersensitivity reaction[emedicine.com]
  • This process may possibly be integral in developing the new immune system. 14 The high frequency of eosinophilia suggests an allergic basis, leading some authors to suggest that erythema toxicum neonatorum may be an immediate hypersensitivity reaction[dermaamin.com]
  • A suggested viral or allergic nature could not be confirmed by adequate agent or antigen isolation respectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ETN predominantly affects the hair-bearing areas of the skin, and this suggests the potential involvement of the hair follicle. This seems to be supported by the observed increase in the number of mast cells around the hair follicles.[news-medical.net]
Fussiness
  • Call your doctor if your baby has a rash and is also fussy, not feeding well, or has a fever. Date reviewed: September 2016[kidshealth.org]
Breast Engorgement
  • P83.0 Sclerema neonatorum P83.1 Neonatal erythema toxicum P83.2 Hydrops fetalis not due to hemolytic disease P83.3 Other and unspecified edema specific to newborn P83.30 Unspecified edema specific to newborn P83.39 Other edema specific to newborn P83.4 Breast[icd10data.com]
Cesarean Section
  • ETN and Mode of Delivery In the present study, the odds of developing ETN was higher in babies born via vaginal route compared to those born via Cesarean section; however, it was not statistically significant [OR 0.77; 95% CI (0.52; 1.16)].[pubs.sciepub.com]
Lethargy
  • The patient is not febrile during this period and signs such as lethargy or irritability are absent.[symptoma.com]
  • Signs of systemic toxicity, including hypothermia or hyperthermia, lethargy, and irritability, are not associated with erythema toxicum neonatorum.[dermaamin.com]

Workup

Clinical examination and attentive history inquiry are key tools for erythema toxicum neonatorum diagnosis and further investigations are usually unnecessary. A complete blood count may reveal increased eosinophil numbers. The histological evaluation of intralesional content shows the presence of eosinophils and neutrophils [4] [8]. If eosinophils are absent or a systemic disease is suspected, bacterial, viral, and fungal cultures are required. A potassium hydroxide preparation may confirm or exclude candidiasis. If cultures are proven negative and doubt still persists, a skin biopsy should be performed. In the case of erythema toxicum neonatorum, this method will highlight the presence of dermal edema and perivascular inflammatory infiltrate. The root sheath of the hair follicle may also be invaded by eosinophils while pustules are filled with the eosinophil-rich material [9]. In a severely ill child, blood cultures are indicated in order to exclude sepsis. Herpes virus infection can also be ruled out using fluorescent antibody testing or a Tzanck preparation.

Polyps
  • […] fetalis not due to hemolytic disease P83.3 Other and unspecified edema specific to newborn P83.30 Unspecified edema specific to newborn P83.39 Other edema specific to newborn P83.4 Breast engorgement of newborn P83.5 Congenital hydrocele P83.6 Umbilical polyp[icd10data.com]
Lymphocytic Infiltrate
  • Lesions are usually more confluent than those seen in erythema toxicum and demonstrate lymphocytic infiltrate on Wright stain.[healthzene.com]

Treatment

  • It usually lasts several days and clears up without treatment. Updated by: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA.[nlm.nih.gov]
  • ETN doesn’t require treatment. No changes in your baby’s skin care routine are necessary. Many harmless skin conditions can affect your newborn baby, including ETN.[healthline.com]
  • Maxillofacial Deformities Treatment Of Bruxism (Teeth Grinding) Treatment Of Fractured Cheekbone Treatment Of Mandibular Fracture (Broken Lower Jaw) Treatment of Periodontal Disease Root Canal Treatment Fissure Sealant Restoration Of Root Treated Teeth[myhealth.gov.my]
  • Treatment for erythema toxicum Your baby doesn’t need any special treatment because the erythema toxicum rash is harmless and not contagious, and it goes away by itself after a week or so.[raisingchildren.net.au]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis The prognosis is excellent. The lesions typically resolve within 2 weeks, and no cutaneous or systemic sequelae are generally observed. This is a benign, asymptomatic, self-limited skin condition with no known sequelae.[emedicine.com]
  • Treatment and prognosis The diagnosis of ETN is usually made on clinical grounds. Histological tests done from skin biopsies may show inflammatory cell and eosinophilic infiltrates, but this is not required.[news-medical.net]

Etiology

  • Abstract Erythema toxicum neonatorum is a common finding of unknown etiology affecting healthy newborn children, particularly those born at term. It is seen in the first days of life, but rarely at birth.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology of toxic erythema. Erythema toxicum neonatorum. Am J Dis Child. 1963 Sep. 106:306-9. [Medline]. Bassukas ID.[emedicine.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiologic study of the predisposing factors in erythema toxicum neonatorum. Dermatology. 2005. 210(4):269-72. [Medline]. Monteagudo B, Labandeira J, Cabanillas M, Acevedo A, Toribio J.[emedicine.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] erythema toxicum neonatorum Member Rated 0 Patient case no. 638 Date added 01 January 1990 Patient details Age Baby / infant Localisation Head / face / forehead Primary Lesions Papule / erythematous Pustule / follicular Erythema Pathophysiology tumors[dermquest.com]
  • Pathophysiology The underlying mechanism of erythema toxicum neonatorum (ETN) is unknown, although various hypotheses have been described. [5] Etiology The underlying pathophysiology is uncertain.[emedicine.com]
  • Pathophysiology Activation of the immune system has been implicated as a potential cause of ETN.[news-medical.net]

Prevention

  • The use of lotions to treat the rash, excessive or too vigorous washing of the baby, or rubbing or breaking the pustules associated with ETN should be scrupulously avoided, to prevent secondary skin infections.[news-medical.net]
  • Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head of Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Visiting Professor, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs[emedicine.com]

References

Article

  1. Kanada KN, Merin MR, Munden A, et al. A Prospective Study of Cutaneous Findings in Newborns in the United States: Correlation with Race, Ethnicity, and Gestational Status Using Updated Classification and Nomenclature. J Pediatr.2012;161(2):240-245
  2. Reginatto FP, Villa DD, Cestari TF. Benign skin disease with pustules in the newborn. An Bras Dermatol.2016;91(2):124-134.
  3. Schwartz RA, Janniger CK. Erythema toxicum neonatorum. Cutis. 1996;58(2):153-155.
  4. Monteagudo B, Labandeira J, Cabanillas M, et al. Prospective Study of Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum: Epidemiology and Predisposing Factors. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29(2):166-168.
  5. Mahajan VK, Sharma NL. Erythema toxicum neonatorum. Indian Pediatr.2010;47(9):793.
  6. Maffei FA, Michaels MG, Wald ER. An unusual presentation of erythema toxicum scrotal pustules present at birth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150(6):649-650.
  7. Liu C, Feng J, Qu R, et al. Epidemiologic study of the predisposing factors in erythema toxicum neonatorum. Dermatology. 2005;210(4):269-272.
  8. Van Praag MC, Van Rooij RW, Folkers E, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of pustular disorders in the neonate. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14(2):131-143.
  9. Marchini G, Ulfgren AK, Lore K, et al. Erythema toxicum neonatorum: an immunohistochemical analysis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2001;18(3):177-187.

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!
Last updated: 2019-07-11 20:21