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Esophoria


Presentation

  • Further, this group processed briefly presented visual stimuli significantly less effectively as compared to a group with verified normal vision.[oepf.org]
  • METHODS: For each treatment group, we examined the pattern of change in myopia over the first and second halves of the 54-month period to see if the beneficial effect of wearing bifocals was present initially for those 46 children, as it was in the entire[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time and may be associated with other problems, such as injuries.[icdlist.com]
  • In this retrospective case-control study we analyzed the neuro-ophthalmological examination reports of 400 adult patients who presented at the German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders to determine an association between ocular misalignment and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The initial treatment for esophoria is prescription eyeglasses to address the commonly present farsightedness, or hyperopia. With farsightedness the child must change their focus from far objects, which they can see just fine, to near objects.[blog.visionsource-plano.com]
Pathologist
  • JCH MD Hi Jodi4566, I am a speech and language pathologist. Esophoria is common in children and can be improved through vision therapy to strengthen the eye muscles. It can cause reading difficulties.[medhelp.org]
Strabismus
  • […] directly to: 2015/16 ICD-10-CM H50.51 Esophoria Approximate Synonyms Bilat esophoria bilateral esophoria Esophoria (eye condition) Left esophoria Right esophoria ICD-9-CM Volume 2 Index entries containing back-references to 378.41 : Esophoria 378.41 Strabismus[icd9data.com]
  • H50.61 Brown's sheath syndrome H50.69 Other mechanical strabismus Reimbursement claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015 require the use of ICD-10-CM codes.[icd10data.com]
  • Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in which the two eyes don't line up in the same direction. This results in "crossed eyes" or "walleye."[icdlist.com]
  • Abstract Convergent strabismus is a common diagnosis in early childhood, when it is mostly considered benign. If it develops later in life, strabismus can, however, be a sign of neurological disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Esotropia
  • Causes include: Refractive errors Divergence insufficiency Convergence excess; this can be due to nerve, muscle, congenital or mechanical anomalies.Unlike esotropia, fusion is possible and therefore diplopia is uncommon.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Accommodative esotropia or convergence excess Kelly A.[healio.com]
  • Unlike esotropia , fusion is possible and therefore diplopia is uncommon. Hypertropia is a condition of misalignment of the eyes, whereby the visual axis of one eye is higher than the fellow fixating eye.[enow.com]
  • Sentences Mobile He had 20 PD esophoria at near and 14 PD esotropia at distance. There are three different states, which can be distinguished : Esophoria , Exophoria, Orthophoria.[eng.ichacha.net]
Ataxia
  • Individuals in these families were categorized as affected if they exhibited one form of primary criteria ( ataxia, marked loss of smooth pursuit, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and impaired vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression ) and at least one secondary criteria[eng.ichacha.net]
  • ., cerebellar ataxia and/or cerebellar ocular motor signs) had a 4.49 (95 % CI [1.60; 13.78]) times higher frequency of ocular misalignment and specifically a 13.3 (95 % CI [3.80; 55.73]) times increased frequency of esophoria/esotropia (ESO) during distant[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysmetria
  • ESO when looking into the distance was associated with saccadic smooth pursuit, dysmetria of saccades, and downbeat nystagmus (DBN) (χ (2) test, p[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mononeuropathy
  • Cranial mononeuropathy III (Medical Encyclopedia) Cranial mononeuropathy VI (Medical Encyclopedia) Eye muscle repair (Medical Encyclopedia) Nystagmus (Medical Encyclopedia) Strabismus (Medical Encyclopedia) Supranuclear ophthalmoplegia (Medical Encyclopedia[icdlist.com]
Cerebellar Ataxia
  • ., cerebellar ataxia and/or cerebellar ocular motor signs) had a 4.49 (95 % CI [1.60; 13.78]) times higher frequency of ocular misalignment and specifically a 13.3 (95 % CI [3.80; 55.73]) times increased frequency of esophoria/esotropia (ESO) during distant[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cerebellar Sign
  • Patients with cerebellar signs (i.e., cerebellar ataxia and/or cerebellar ocular motor signs) had a 4.49 (95 % CI [1.60; 13.78]) times higher frequency of ocular misalignment and specifically a 13.3 (95 % CI [3.80; 55.73]) times increased frequency of[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • […] divergence, with sparing of fusional convergence, was subsequently corroborated. 4 A 2005 study, however, did not find a difference in fusional divergence among primary and secondary DI cases. 7 Similarly, A-pattern defects need to be considered in the workup[reviewofophthalmology.com]
Slowing
  • CONCLUSION: Wearing bifocals instead of single-vision glasses caused a slowing of myopia progression evident during the first two years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Axial length is measured with ultrasound in order to test the corollary hypothesis that use of bifocals will slow ocular growth in these myopic children.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • If it develops later in life… (More) Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2011 PURPOSE To determine whether progressive-addition lenses (PALs) relative to single-vision lenses (SVLs) slow the progression of… (More) K. M. Chung , E. M. F.[semanticscholar.org]
  • Dissociated Vertical Deviation is a special type of hypertropia leading to slow upward drift of one or rarely both eyes, usually when the patient is inattentive. Exotropia is a form of strabismus where the eyes are deviated outward.[enow.com]
  • ARTICLES: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Abstract Author Information Authors Our previous findings suggest that myopia can be slowed by wearing progressive lenses , and one possible mechanism for this is through the oculomotor system.[journals.lww.com]

Treatment

  • During the last 12 months of the 54-month period, subjects were free to select any mode of myopic treatment, but this intent-to-treat analysis classified all children according to their original treatment assignment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • So diagnosis and treatment must begin at once. What are the Treatments Options? The initial treatment for esophoria is prescription eyeglasses to address the commonly present farsightedness, or hyperopia.[blog.visionsource-plano.com]
  • Even if the vision is restored to a squinting eye by occlusion treatment - i.e. putting a patch over the better eye - there may remain a loss of binocular vision.[gpnotebook.co.uk]

Prognosis

  • I would suggest you go to University of Indiana, School of Optometry or the Vision Development Center in Jasper and they will be able to assess your binocular vision thoroughly and give you the proper diagnosis and prognosis.[healthboards.com]

Etiology

  • Current techniques to control its progression target these etiologies. Methods of myopia control that have been explored include: vision and behavioral therapy, contact lenses, multifocal lenses, and pharmaceutical agents.[oepf.org]
  • Congenital cataract is the most frequent etiology of this type of amblyopia. Strictly speaking, this isn't a true form of amblyopia since it isn't of a functional nature but rather has a pathological and/or organic etiology. • Refractive amblyopias.[optometricmanagement.com]
  • When patients report diplopia, particularly if recent in onset, you must first rule out potentially life-threatening etiologies.[reviewofoptometry.com]

Epidemiology

  • Secondary Form The epidemiology of primary and secondary form appears similar, with highest incidence among adults, but pediatric cases are reported sporadically as well.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • In these cases the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are largely unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • A tendency for the eyes to turn inward, prevented by binocular vision.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Health in Focus With 3-D Gadgets Takashi Fujikado , a visual-science professor at Osaka University's Graduate School of Medicine, is starting research on whether children afflicted with esophoria , who are constantly making extra effort to prevent their[wordnik.com]
  • A tendency for the eyes to turn inward, prevented by binocular vision. Synonyms: esodeviation1 Found on Esophoria Esophoria is characterised by inward deviation of the eye usually due to extra-ocular muscle imbalance.[encyclo.co.uk]
  • Obviously, the identification of predictive factors has important implications for the treatment and prevention of myopia, as well as for establishing the temporal order of causal mechanisms.[link.springer.com]

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