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  • Further, this group processed briefly presented visual stimuli significantly less effectively as compared to a group with verified normal vision.[oepf.org]
  • METHODS: For each treatment group, we examined the pattern of change in myopia over the first and second halves of the 54-month period to see if the beneficial effect of wearing bifocals was present initially for those 46 children, as it was in the entire[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time and may be associated with other problems, such as injuries.[icdlist.com]
  • A 38 yo male accountant presented with diplopia when removing his glasses, visual fatigue, and concerns his prescription and prisms were increasing. His history includes a father with apparently pathological myopia.[privateeyeclinic.com]
  • JCH MD Hi Jodi4566, I am a speech and language pathologist. Esophoria is common in children and can be improved through vision therapy to strengthen the eye muscles. It can cause reading difficulties.[medhelp.org]
  • [crossref] Uhls YT, Michikyan M, Morris J, Garcia D, Small GW, et al. (2014) Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues. Computers in Human Behavior 39: 387-392.[oatext.com]
  • H50.61 Brown's sheath syndrome H50.69 Other mechanical strabismus Reimbursement claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015 require the use of ICD-10-CM codes.[icd10data.com]
  • I was reminded of this while reviewing a new paper from Brian Mohney and his pediatric ophthalmology/adult strabismus group at the Mayo Clinic on adult-onset CI.[visionhelp.wordpress.com]
  • Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in which the two eyes don't line up in the same direction. This results in "crossed eyes" or "walleye."[icdlist.com]
  • I've picked up the following definition of strabismus: "Strabismus is synonymous with heterotropia and squint" from Indiana University.[pprune.org]
  • Accommodative esotropia or convergence excess Kelly A.[healio.com]
  • Causes include: Refractive errors Divergence insufficiency Convergence excess; this can be due to nerve, muscle, congenital or mechanical anomalies.Unlike esotropia, fusion is possible and therefore diplopia is uncommon.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Unlike esotropia , fusion is possible and therefore diplopia is uncommon. Hypertropia is a condition of misalignment of the eyes, whereby the visual axis of one eye is higher than the fellow fixating eye.[enow.com]
  • Sentences Mobile He had 20 PD esophoria at near and 14 PD esotropia at distance. There are three different states, which can be distinguished : Esophoria , Exophoria, Orthophoria.[eng.ichacha.net]
  • Individuals in these families were categorized as affected if they exhibited one form of primary criteria ( ataxia, marked loss of smooth pursuit, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and impaired vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression ) and at least one secondary criteria[eng.ichacha.net]
  • ., cerebellar ataxia and/or cerebellar ocular motor signs) had a 4.49 (95 % CI [1.60; 13.78]) times higher frequency of ocular misalignment and specifically a 13.3 (95 % CI [3.80; 55.73]) times increased frequency of esophoria/esotropia (ESO) during distant[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He complained about blurred vision, irritable and tired eyes, with recurrent moments of confusion and double vision, especially for near. Medical and ocular history was negative.[oatext.com]
Cerebellar Ataxia
  • ., cerebellar ataxia and/or cerebellar ocular motor signs) had a 4.49 (95 % CI [1.60; 13.78]) times higher frequency of ocular misalignment and specifically a 13.3 (95 % CI [3.80; 55.73]) times increased frequency of esophoria/esotropia (ESO) during distant[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cerebellar Sign
  • Patients with cerebellar signs (i.e., cerebellar ataxia and/or cerebellar ocular motor signs) had a 4.49 (95 % CI [1.60; 13.78]) times higher frequency of ocular misalignment and specifically a 13.3 (95 % CI [3.80; 55.73]) times increased frequency of[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ESO when looking into the distance was associated with saccadic smooth pursuit, dysmetria of saccades, and downbeat nystagmus (DBN) (χ (2) test, p[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • […] divergence, with sparing of fusional convergence, was subsequently corroborated. 4 A 2005 study, however, did not find a difference in fusional divergence among primary and secondary DI cases. 7 Similarly, A-pattern defects need to be considered in the workup[reviewofophthalmology.com]


  • During the last 12 months of the 54-month period, subjects were free to select any mode of myopic treatment, but this intent-to-treat analysis classified all children according to their original treatment assignment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment options: Vision therapy is an effective treatment option. One example of vision therapy for exophoria is pencil pushups: Get a pencil and focus intently on the its tip bringing it back slowly towards your eyes until it touches your nose.[2020detroit.com]
  • So diagnosis and treatment must begin at once. What are the Treatments Options? The initial treatment for esophoria is prescription eyeglasses to address the commonly present farsightedness, or hyperopia.[blog.visionsource-plano.com]
  • Even if the vision is restored to a squinting eye by occlusion treatment - i.e. putting a patch over the better eye - there may remain a loss of binocular vision.[gpnotebook.co.uk]


  • I would suggest you go to University of Indiana, School of Optometry or the Vision Development Center in Jasper and they will be able to assess your binocular vision thoroughly and give you the proper diagnosis and prognosis.[healthboards.com]
  • Prognosis Studies have demonstrated binocularity of at least peripheral fusion in around 70% of patients with accommodative esotropia.[eyewiki.aao.org]


  • Current techniques to control its progression target these etiologies. Methods of myopia control that have been explored include: vision and behavioral therapy, contact lenses, multifocal lenses, and pharmaceutical agents.[oepf.org]
  • Specifical risk factors, etiology, and potential remedial interventions deserve to be further investigated.[oatext.com]
  • Congenital cataract is the most frequent etiology of this type of amblyopia. Strictly speaking, this isn't a true form of amblyopia since it isn't of a functional nature but rather has a pathological and/or organic etiology. • Refractive amblyopias.[optometricmanagement.com]
  • Etiology Accommodative esotropia is caused by accommodative convergence associated with hyperopia.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • When patients report diplopia, particularly if recent in onset, you must first rule out potentially life-threatening etiologies.[reviewofoptometry.com]


  • Secondary Form The epidemiology of primary and secondary form appears similar, with highest incidence among adults, but pediatric cases are reported sporadically as well.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
  • -K. et al. (1999). " Epidemiologic Study of Ocular Refraction among Schoolchildren in Taiwan in 1995, " Optometry and Vision Science,76(5):275-281.[patents.google.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • In these cases the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are largely unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology A patient with hyperopia must accommodate to clear a blurred image. Accommodation will stimulate convergence. If fusional divergence is insufficient to compensate for this, an esotropia will develop.[eyewiki.aao.org]


  • A tendency for the eyes to turn inward, prevented by binocular vision.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Obviously, the identification of predictive factors has important implications for the treatment and prevention of myopia, as well as for establishing the temporal order of causal mechanisms.[link.springer.com]
  • However, the central points for visual prevention are a conscious use of digital displays, taking frequent breaks, and an appropriate application of ophthalmic lenses, when indicated.[oatext.com]

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