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Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency


Presentation

  • In the MEADplus group, food allergy presented with skin symptoms in 100% (vs. 70% in the MEADminus group, p CONCLUSIONS: Severe symptoms of food allergy combined with elimination diets in children may lead to insufficient nutrition presenting with elevated[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sepsis
  • Abstract Severe endothelial abnormalities are a prominent feature in sepsis with cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha being implicated in the pathogenesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intravenous Administration
  • Biochemical abnormalities responded rapidly to the intravenous administration of Intralipid.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Noncompliance
  • Abstract A female subject dependent on long-term total parenteral nutrition developed an aversion and noncompliance to a prescribed weekly lipid infusion designed to meet essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Failure to Thrive
  • […] to thrive, adult ( R62.7 ) failure to thrive, child ( R62.51 ) feeding problems in newborn ( P92.- ) sequelae of malnutrition and other nutritional deficiencies ( E64.- ) Other nutritional deficiencies Approximate Synonyms Essential fatty acid deficiency[icd10data.com]
Fat Intolerance
  • Plasma triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) increased during the infusions but not to concentrations indicative of fat intolerance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Jaundice
  • The serum total bile acid concentration was lower in six of the eight jaundice-free patients and in four of the eight jaundice patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cutaneous Manifestation
  • The cutaneous manifestations (scalp dermatitis, alopecia, and depigmentation of hair) were reversed with continued, topical application of safflower oil, which contains 60% to 70% linoleic acid.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Photosensitivity
  • We postulate that the association of fatty acid deficiency and abnormal vitamin E status contributed to skin damage, possibly involving photosensitizing compounds poorly cleared by the markedly cholestatic liver.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Staphylococcus Aureus
  • Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency is a predisposing factor for pulmonary infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the two major pathogenic microorganisms in cystic fibrosis (CF).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • A persistently elevated T/T ratio suggested that altered fatty acid metabolism characteristic of linoleic acid deficiency was not corrected by the treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis of CF has improved steadily over the past five decades, mainly because of aggressive treatment before the onset of irreversible pulmonary changes.[nature.com]

Etiology

  • Pathogenesis of pancreatitis was studied in experimental animals and essential fatty acid deficiency was condemned as an etiological factor, since it caused pathological changes in permeability of cell membrane of the pancreatic acinar cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract A considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological data indicate that dietary fats play a role in urinary tract tumorigenesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • American Journal of Epidemiology, 145, 33 – 41. Peet, M. & Horrobin, D. F. ( 2001 ) A dose-ranging study of ethyl-eicosapentonate in treatment-unresponsive depression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 15 ( suppl. ), A12.[bjp.rcpsych.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of EFAD, and the role of linoleic acid in the disease are reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The possible role of essential fatty acids in the pathophysiology of malnutrition: a review. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2004;71(4):241-250. (PubMed) 26. Mascioli EA, Lopes SM, Champagne C, Driscoll DF.[lpi.oregonstate.edu]

Prevention

  • This case report describes the failure of topical vegetable oils containing esters of linoleic acid to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency in a critically ill patient with trauma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • But now, most TPN solutions include fat emulsions to prevent EFA deficiency.[merckmanuals.com]

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