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Ethanol

Alcohol Ethyl


Presentation

  • Case 2: A 47-year-old woman presented after overdose of vodka and disulfiram. She was tachycardic and hypotensive upon presentation. After administration of 3 L of normal saline, she remained hypotensive and tachycardic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the toxicokinetic analysis in a child with a massive ingestion of ethanol. A 15-year-old girl without significant medical history presented to the Emergency Department after drinking 24 ounces of tequila.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the course of a 9-month-old female infant who became unresponsive at home and presented to the emergency department comatose.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract We report a case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with intractable hypotension and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction as a result of a disulfiram-ethanol reaction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Also presented is a vitreous humor metabolic panel that contains glucose, creatinine, and urea nitrogen data for this case.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Falling
  • Each year, the program consistently falls short of the blend levels initially called for by Congress in the 2007 bill.[washingtontimes.com]
  • This is because volumes are still likely to be high relative to demand, which itself could fall at the end of the quarter.[icis.com]
  • It will be up to the users to decide whether their substance or mixture fall in one or in more of these classification categories depending on the tonnage bands and the concentrations.[echa.europa.eu]
  • The legal limit for blood alcohol usually falls between 0.08 and 0.10 in most states.[nlm.nih.gov]
Hypothermia
  • Despite her markedly elevated blood alcohol level, she had an unexpectedly mild clinical course, exhibiting subtle neurologic symptoms but no hypothermia, hypoglycemia, or cardiorespiratory impairment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Complications of alcohol poisoning can include hypothermia, hypoglycemia, seizures, coma, and death. We present the course of a 9-month-old female infant who became unresponsive at home and presented to the emergency department comatose.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • With a very high blood ethanol, more serious signs and symptoms of toxicity may appear such as confusion, stupor, staggering, irregular or slow breathing, loss of consciousness, seizures, and low body temperature (hypothermia).[labtestsonline.org]
  • The cerebellar lesions are responsible for the ataxic gait, while the brainstem lesions are responsible for the disruption in vital signs characterized by respiratory distress, hypothermia, and hypotension.[doi.org]
Gastric Lavage
  • Ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed from the stomach, making treatment with gastric lavage and syrup of ipecac ineffective. 3, 6 Likewise, it requires large amounts of activated charcoal to bind relatively small amounts of ethylene glycol, and the therapeutic[aafp.org]
Nausea
  • However, for slim patients with a small volume of distribution and low tolerability, a longer duration of mild side effects such as drowsiness and nausea might be experienced.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pancreatitis (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain) Vomiting, sometimes bloody Other: Fatigue Leg cramps Weakness Seek immediate medical help.[nlm.nih.gov]
  • Other symptoms may include stupor, nausea, mental excitement or depression, vomiting, flushing and coma.[npi.gov.au]
  • Nonneurologic effects of ethanol include tachycardia, vasodilatation, diaphoresis, diuresis, nausea, vomiting, and acute gastritis.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Vol. 17, Pg. 183, 1958. child TDLo oral 14400mg/kg/30 (14400mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA BEHAVIORAL: COMA GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica.[chem.nlm.nih.gov]
Vomiting
  • , and abdominal pain) Vomiting, sometimes bloody Other: Fatigue Leg cramps Weakness Seek immediate medical help.[nlm.nih.gov]
  • Other symptoms may include stupor, nausea, mental excitement or depression, vomiting, flushing and coma.[npi.gov.au]
  • This leads to signs and symptoms of intoxication such as bloodshot eyes, flushed face, slurred speech, slow response to questions or comments, impaired judgment, decreased motor skills, drowsiness or falling asleep, and/or vomiting.[labtestsonline.org]
  • Nonneurologic effects of ethanol include tachycardia, vasodilatation, diaphoresis, diuresis, nausea, vomiting, and acute gastritis.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Vol. 17, Pg. 183, 1958. child TDLo oral 14400mg/kg/30 (14400mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA BEHAVIORAL: COMA GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica.[chem.nlm.nih.gov]
Tachycardia
  • After 11 hours of resuscitation, she had skin flushing, lip swelling, tachycardia, and hypotension. Antihistamines, steroids, and an additional 2 L of normal saline were given without improvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Nonneurologic effects of ethanol include tachycardia, vasodilatation, diaphoresis, diuresis, nausea, vomiting, and acute gastritis.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Hypertension, tachycardia, and cardiac failure may ensue. Pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and adult respiratory distress syndrome have also been reported. 3, 9 Renal involvement may become apparent within 24 to 72 hours after ingestion.[aafp.org]
  • Furthermore, the brainstem involvement causes hypotension, tachycardia, syncope, and respiratory problems. Excessive glutamate release and imbalance between GABA and glutamate levels can result in epileptic seizures [ 8 ], [ 48 ].[doi.org]
  • 2 Diabetes Mellitus 1 2 Unknown Status Treatment Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PTCL) 1 2 Withdrawn Prevention Catheter Related Infections / Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) 1 2, 3 Active Not Recruiting Treatment Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Ventricular Tachycardia[drugbank.ca]
Jaundice
  • Nervous system: Agitated behavior Coma (unresponsiveness) Confusion Difficulty walking Dizziness Headache Seizures Skin and nails: Bluish-colored lips and fingernails Stomach and intestines: Abdominal pain (severe) Diarrhea Liver problems, including jaundice[nlm.nih.gov]
Flushing
  • After 11 hours of resuscitation, she had skin flushing, lip swelling, tachycardia, and hypotension. Antihistamines, steroids, and an additional 2 L of normal saline were given without improvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Protection/Sanitation ( See protection codes ) Skin: Prevent skin contact Eyes: Prevent eye contact Wash skin: When contaminated Remove: When wet (flammable) Change: No recommendation First Aid ( See procedures ) Eye: Irrigate immediately Skin: Water flush[cdc.gov]
  • Other symptoms may include stupor, nausea, mental excitement or depression, vomiting, flushing and coma.[npi.gov.au]
  • This leads to signs and symptoms of intoxication such as bloodshot eyes, flushed face, slurred speech, slow response to questions or comments, impaired judgment, decreased motor skills, drowsiness or falling asleep, and/or vomiting.[labtestsonline.org]
  • The cannula was flushed to ensure it was not clogged and a visual inspection was done on the dura to ensure correct placement over the junction of the superior sagittal and transverse sinuses.[dx.doi.org]
Diplopia
  • The diagnosis of GO was confirmed by bilateral corneal damage, increased intraocular pressure on upgaze, and inconstant diplopia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Larger doses cause a reversible neurotoxicity manifested by altered sensorium, mydriasis, diplopia, nystagmus, dysequilibrium, tremor, slurred speech, incoordination, and general CNS depression proceeding from disorientation and deterioration of judgment[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Blurred Vision
  • Symptoms may include: Airway and lungs: Breathing difficulty No breathing Eyes: Blindness, complete or partial, sometimes described as "snow blindness" Blurred vision Dilation (widening) of the pupils Heart and blood: Low blood pressure Nervous system[nlm.nih.gov]
Confusion
  • During follow-up, 6 patients remained asymptomatic and normoglycemic, while the 2 patients who presented post-procedural complications developed occasional mild confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Breathing difficulty No breathing Eyes: Blindness, complete or partial, sometimes described as "snow blindness" Blurred vision Dilation (widening) of the pupils Heart and blood: Low blood pressure Nervous system: Agitated behavior Coma (unresponsiveness) Confusion[nlm.nih.gov]
  • They tend to induce a state known as dissociative anesthesia, marked by catalepsy, amnesia, and analgesia, while side effects can include hallucinations, nightmares, and confusion.[ebi.ac.uk]
Seizure
  • Complications of alcohol poisoning can include hypothermia, hypoglycemia, seizures, coma, and death. We present the course of a 9-month-old female infant who became unresponsive at home and presented to the emergency department comatose.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] complete or partial, sometimes described as "snow blindness" Blurred vision Dilation (widening) of the pupils Heart and blood: Low blood pressure Nervous system: Agitated behavior Coma (unresponsiveness) Confusion Difficulty walking Dizziness Headache Seizures[nlm.nih.gov]
  • With a very high blood ethanol, more serious signs and symptoms of toxicity may appear such as confusion, stupor, staggering, irregular or slow breathing, loss of consciousness, seizures, and low body temperature (hypothermia).[labtestsonline.org]
  • Benzodiazepines, such as lorazepam, are used, especially if there is a concern for alcohol withdrawal since they are used to treat alcohol withdrawal seizures. It is important to avoid any medication that may lower the seizure threshold.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Signs include an initial period of excitement and incoordination, followed by stupor, coma, respiratory failure and seizures. ethanol gel test used to detect the presence of fibrinogen-split products in a blood sample; based on the separation of the split[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Ataxia
  • Exposure to high concentrations of ethanol vapours may cause irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract, loss of coordination (ataxia), sleepiness, narcosis (stupor or unconsciousness), impaired perception and lack of coordination.[npi.gov.au]
  • Vol. 1, Pg. 207, 1944. dog LDLo intravenous 1600mg/kg (1600mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA" Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.[chem.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These symptoms were ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and mental confusion.[doi.org]
  • Symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity include confusion, ataxia, hallucinations, slurred speech, and comaSymptoms are most severe six to 12 hoursafter ingestion, when the acidic metabolites ofethylene glycol are at their maximal concentrationThe presentation[aafp.org]
  • Human systemic effects by ingestion and subcutaneous routes: sleep disorders, hallucinations, dtstorted perceptions, convulsions, motor activity changes, ataxia, coma, antipsychotic,headache, pulmonary changes, alteration in gastric secretion, nausea[chemicalbook.com]
Stupor
  • Other symptoms may include stupor, nausea, mental excitement or depression, vomiting, flushing and coma.[npi.gov.au]
  • […] doses cause a reversible neurotoxicity manifested by altered sensorium, mydriasis, diplopia, nystagmus, dysequilibrium, tremor, slurred speech, incoordination, and general CNS depression proceeding from disorientation and deterioration of judgment to stupor[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • With a very high blood ethanol, more serious signs and symptoms of toxicity may appear such as confusion, stupor, staggering, irregular or slow breathing, loss of consciousness, seizures, and low body temperature (hypothermia).[labtestsonline.org]
  • Below is a list of blood alcohol levels and the likely symptoms: 0.05 -- reduced inhibitions 0.10 -- slurred speech 0.20 -- euphoria and motor impairment 0.30 -- confusion 0.40 -- stupor 0.50 -- coma 0.60 -- breathing stops and death You can have symptoms[nlm.nih.gov]
Slurred Speech
  • Measurable cognitive impairment occurs at a blood alcohol level of about 0.05%, gait disturbances at 0.10%, slurred speech at 0.15%. A level of 0.3-0.4% leads to unconsciousness, and respiratory arrest occurs around 0.5%.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Below is a list of blood alcohol levels and the likely symptoms: 0.05 -- reduced inhibitions 0.10 -- slurred speech 0.20 -- euphoria and motor impairment 0.30 -- confusion 0.40 -- stupor 0.50 -- coma 0.60 -- breathing stops and death You can have symptoms[nlm.nih.gov]
  • This leads to signs and symptoms of intoxication such as bloodshot eyes, flushed face, slurred speech, slow response to questions or comments, impaired judgment, decreased motor skills, drowsiness or falling asleep, and/or vomiting.[labtestsonline.org]
  • Symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity include confusion, ataxia, hallucinations, slurred speech, and comaSymptoms are most severe six to 12 hoursafter ingestion, when the acidic metabolites ofethylene glycol are at their maximal concentrationThe presentation[aafp.org]

Treatment

  • Its treatment options consist of the excision of the lesion and/or hormonal therapies, although wide surgical excision is the treatment of choice in the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Taken together, SM treatment induced apoptosis through regulation of miR-216b and ROS/ER stress pathways. SM could be a potential drug for treatment of multiple myeloma and myeloid leukemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Several options are available for its treatment. But there are no treatment guidelines. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection for treatment of axillary osmidrosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the PL treatment, the frontal areas showed decrease in ABP after exercise. However, in the ET TA treatment, ABP values were greater after exercise, except for Fp1.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Local injection of ethanol may represent an interesting alternative to surgery for the treatment of deltoid parathyroid cell hyperplasia in patients in which surgical treatment is not an option.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis for alcohol-induced psychosis is less favorable than earlier studies had speculated. However, if the patient can abstain from alcohol, the prognosis is good.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although the test is not a good indicator of prognosis, a documented level above 20 mg per dL (3 mmol per L) is an indication for treatment with fomepizole (Antizol). 4 The excretion of calcium oxalate crystals in the urine is a finding in approximately[aafp.org]

Etiology

  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report the case of a 50-year-old man with refractory hypertension and end-stage renal failure of unclear etiology who was treated with computed tomography-guided percutaneous periarterial ethanol sympathicolysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an etiological agent of acute hepatitis E, a self-limiting disease prevalent in developing countries.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is characterized by hallucinations, paranoia, and fear. [1] [2] [3] Etiology There are a variety of hypotheses to describe the etiology of alcohol-induced psychosis, but none of them can fully explain the development of acute or chronic hallucinations[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • WE can be broadly divided into alcoholic and non-alcoholic based on the etiologic factor. Acute thiamine deficiency in both alcoholics and non-alcoholics can be corrected by high doses of parenteral thiamine.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology A 2015 Dutch literature review on alcohol-induced psychotic disorder found that there is a 0.4% lifetime prevalence in the general population and a 4% prevalence of alcohol-induced psychosis in patients with alcohol dependence.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40(4):415-46. [ PubMed:12216995 ] Hingson R, Winter M: Epidemiology and consequences of drinking and driving.[hmdb.ca]
  • Genetic epidemiology of ethanol metabolic enzymes: A role for selection. In A. P. Simopoulos and B. Childs (eds.), Genetic variation and nutrition, pp. 143–160. Karger, Basel., and R. F. Kay. 1988.[doi.org]
  • One major epidemiological feature that clearly underlines the genetic factor in the outcome of thiamine deficiency is the difference in races.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • We discuss the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension related to ethanol sclerotherapy, and propose that hemolysis plays a significant role. Recommendations for evaluation, monitoring and management of this complication are also discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Favourable changes in several cardiovascular biomarkers (higher levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin and lower levels of fibrinogen) provide indirect pathophysiological support for a protective effect of moderate[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients with alcohol-induced psychosis have a 5 % to 30% risk of developing a chronic schizophrenia-like syndrome. [4] Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced psychosis is unclear. Several hypotheses exist.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology Toxicity results from the depressant effects of ethylene glycol on the central nervous system(CNS). Metabolic acidosis and renal failure are caused by the conversion of ethylene glycol to noxious metabolites.[aafp.org]

Prevention

  • TIBH had a dose dependent ulcer prevention potential against HCl/Ethanol-triggered gastric ulcer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is critical that poisoning due to ethanol and/or other related alcohols should be recognized early in order to initiate appropriate treatments and prevent fatalities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Several strategies have been developed to prevent and treat catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSIs), including ethanol lock therapy. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of ethanol lock therapy in our IF population.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] skin contact Eyes: Prevent eye contact Wash skin: When contaminated Remove: When wet (flammable) Change: No recommendation First Aid ( See procedures ) Eye: Irrigate immediately Skin: Water flush promptly Breathing: Fresh air Swallow: Medical attention[cdc.gov]
  • This series further supports the existing literature showing that ETL is a viable therapy for the prevention of CRBSIs, warranting prospective research.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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