Edit concept Create issue ticket

Exposure to Ammonia

Ammonia Exposure


Presentation

  • Presented in an easy-to-use double-page spread format, highly bulleted and concise, the Oxford Desk Reference: Toxicology is ideal for quick referral when an acute problem arises.[books.google.com]
  • The patients with exposure to highly water-soluble gases like formaldehyde, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide can also present with mucosal irritation and secretions; it is possible, although unproven, if glycopyrrolate can benefit these patients.[onlinejets.org]
  • Other risk factors may also be present in individual cases which may independently increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.[medicinesinpregnancy.org]
  • The symptoms presented depend upon the concentration of the gas.[inspectapedia.com]
  • Figure 4 also presents a countertop cleaning scenario with 4 tablespoons of the concentrate used on the 21 ft 2 kitchen countertop.[nature.com]
Cough
  • "With higher doses, coughing or choking may occur. Exposure to high levels of anhydrous ammonia can cause death from a swollen throat or from chemical burns to the lungs."[huffingtonpost.com]
  • It is extremely irritating, you start coughing and sneezing, and the first thing you want to do is get the hell out of there.” The odor makes it fairly easy for Fire Department responders to monitor for presence of the gas, says Langerman.[healthland.time.com]
  • […] respiratory tract, ocular system, skin, and gastrointestinal tract (only if ingested). 2 Ammonia destroys the mucosal barrier of the respiratory tract, causing loss of cilia, edema, and smooth muscle contraction. 3,4 Long-term effects include chronic cough[mdedge.com]
  • Prolonged overexposure to bromine can cause dizziness, headache, and cough followed by abdominal pain and, later, lung edema and pneumonia if the exposure is severe enough.[inspectapedia.com]
  • I start coughing horribly and can hardly breathe. So I know how gross it is. At the place I used to work, if I had to go in early in the morning it was always in the air as they had just cleaned the floors.[mothering.com]
Dyspnea
  • Symptoms of anhydrous ammonia exposure include eye, nose, and throat irritation; dyspnea; wheezing; chest pain; pulmonary edema; pink frothy sputum; skin burns; vesiculation; and frostbite.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Our patient had stridor, dyspnea, excessive secretions, and altered mental state but we could avoid intubation in him by using a combination of steroids and anti-secretory agent like glycopyrrolate.[onlinejets.org]
  • Vesicant toxicity severe enough to cause dyspnea typically causes airway necrosis often with upper airway obstruction.[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Exposure to high concentrations may cause irritation of the skin, damage to the cornea, cough, pain in the chest, respiratory problems (dyspnea i.e. shortness of breath) and suffocation.[digitalfire.com]
  • After 2 to 24 hours, symptoms start with coughing, nausea, vomiting, frothy sputum, dyspnea, cyanosis, convulsions, and signs of lung edema. This train of symptoms may result in death.[inspectapedia.com]
Rhinorrhea
  • Signs and symptoms Symptoms of exposure to gaseous ammonia include the following: Rhinorrhea Scratchy throat Chest tightness Cough Dyspnea Eye irritation Symptoms usually subside within 24-48 hours.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Bronchorrhea
  • In addition our patient presented with respiratory distress, excessive salivation, and bronchorrhea. [1] Patients with severe and prolonged exposure are at high risk for developing life-threatening laryngeal edema, therefore airway intervention should[onlinejets.org]
Painter
  • In this study, we tested the combined effects of ammonia and temperature stress on painter’s mussel ( Unio pictorum ) survival, filtration behavior, hemocyte abundance, hemocyte mortality and glycogen energy status, at concentrations ranging from 0.3[mdpi.com]
Nausea
  • After 2 to 24 hours, symptoms start with coughing, nausea, vomiting, frothy sputum, dyspnea, cyanosis, convulsions, and signs of lung edema. This train of symptoms may result in death.[inspectapedia.com]
  • Exposure to chloramine gases can cause coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, irritation to the throat, nose and eyes or pneumonia and fluid in the lungs.[chemicalsafetyfacts.org]
  • Gastrointestinal - nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are common symptoms following ingestion of ammonia. Ingestion of household ammonia (5-10%) has resulted in severe esophageal burns.[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Exposure to a low concentration of ammonia vapor can: Irritate the nose, mouth, and throat; Irritate the lungs, causing coughing and or shortness of breath; Irritate the eyes and skin, causing a burning sensation; Cause headache, nausea and vomiting;[teamster.org]
  • When ammonia is ingested, nausea and vomiting may result; oral, esophageal, and stomach burns are common. If ammonia has contacted the eyes, irritation, pain, conjunctivitis (red, inflamed eyes), lacrimation (tearing), and corneal erosion may occur.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
Vomiting
  • After 2 to 24 hours, symptoms start with coughing, nausea, vomiting, frothy sputum, dyspnea, cyanosis, convulsions, and signs of lung edema. This train of symptoms may result in death.[inspectapedia.com]
  • DO NOT give water or milk if the person is having symptoms (such as vomiting, convulsions, or a decreased level of alertness) that make it hard to swallow. If the poison was inhaled, immediately move the person to fresh air.[medlineplus.gov]
  • DO NOT induce vomiting or attempt to neutralize! 3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures. 4.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
  • Gastrointestinal - nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are common symptoms following ingestion of ammonia. Ingestion of household ammonia (5-10%) has resulted in severe esophageal burns.[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Exposure to a low concentration of ammonia vapor can: Irritate the nose, mouth, and throat; Irritate the lungs, causing coughing and or shortness of breath; Irritate the eyes and skin, causing a burning sensation; Cause headache, nausea and vomiting;[teamster.org]
Choking
  • "With higher doses, coughing or choking may occur. Exposure to high levels of anhydrous ammonia can cause death from a swollen throat or from chemical burns to the lungs."[huffingtonpost.com]
  • Internationally, the UK is a signatory to the international UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollutants (LRTAP); and the Gothenburg UN/ECE Protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication (where over-fertilisation causes water bodies to become "choked[apps.sepa.org.uk]
  • Medical Management Guidelines Respiratory Agents, such as Choking, Lung, or Pulmonary ones, cause severe irritation/swelling to the respiratory tract. Background Information Synonyms include ammonia gas, anhydrous ammonia, and liquid ammonia.[sccgov.org]
  • If the nose or throat is exposed, flood the area repeatedly for 15 minutes, being careful not to choke the victim. Even a brief or mild exposure to the eyes requires irrigation for a minimum of 15 minutes. Remember to flush underneath eyelids.[nasdonline.org]
  • Exposures to higher concentrations cause severe local irritation with choking and burning in the chest, violent coughing, yellow staining of the mucous membranes, expectoration of yellow-colored sputum, headache, and vomiting.[inspectapedia.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Substernal chest pain, abdominal pain and rigidity suggest profound injury and potential perforation of the esophagus and/ or stomach.[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Swallowing a cleaning product that contains ammonia can burn the mouth, throat, and stomach and cause severe abdominal pain.[chemicalsafetyfacts.org]
  • Prolonged overexposure to bromine can cause dizziness, headache, and cough followed by abdominal pain and, later, lung edema and pneumonia if the exposure is severe enough.[inspectapedia.com]
  • Ingestion of ammonia can produce the following symptoms: Oropharyngeal, epigastric, and retrosternal pain Abdominal pain and other GI symptoms, with viscus perforation (perforation may occur up to 24-72 hours post ingestion) Respiratory symptoms, if aspiration[emedicine.medscape.com]
Xerostomia
  • Xerostomia and cycloplegia might actually benefit the patients with toxic exposure to ammonia gas.[onlinejets.org]
Chest Pain
  • Symptoms of anhydrous ammonia exposure include eye, nose, and throat irritation; dyspnea; wheezing; chest pain; pulmonary edema; pink frothy sputum; skin burns; vesiculation; and frostbite.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Airways, lungs, and chest: Cough Chest pain (severe) Chest tightness Difficulty breathing Rapid breathing Wheezing Body-wide symptoms: Fever Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and throat: Tearing and burning of eyes Temporary blindness Throat pain (severe) Mouth[medlineplus.gov]
  • Exposure to chloramine gases can cause coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, irritation to the throat, nose and eyes or pneumonia and fluid in the lungs.[chemicalsafetyfacts.org]
  • Substernal chest pain, abdominal pain and rigidity suggest profound injury and potential perforation of the esophagus and/ or stomach.[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Signs and Symptoms of Acute Ammonia Exposure: Inhalation of ammonia may cause irritation and burns of the respiratory tract, laryngitis, dyspnea (shortness of breath), stridor (high-pitched respirations), and chest pain.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
Cyanosis
  • After 2 to 24 hours, symptoms start with coughing, nausea, vomiting, frothy sputum, dyspnea, cyanosis, convulsions, and signs of lung edema. This train of symptoms may result in death.[inspectapedia.com]
Weak Pulse
  • […] severe) Chest tightness Difficulty breathing Rapid breathing Wheezing Body-wide symptoms: Fever Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and throat: Tearing and burning of eyes Temporary blindness Throat pain (severe) Mouth pain Lip swelling Heart and blood: Rapid, weak[medlineplus.gov]
Flushing
  • Ammonia on the skin: If irritation occurs, gently blot or brush away any excess chemicals and flush contaminated skin with water. If the chemicals penetrate clothing, promptly remove clothing and flush the skin with water.[safetyandhealthmagazine.com]
  • The rain will flush it out of the air and very quickly dilute it out and into the soil where it will actually act as fertilizer.[healthland.time.com]
  • […] may lead to corrosion of stomach, throat, and mouth lining Extensive exposure may lead to possible death In the event a person has been exposed, it is imperative that they consume large amounts of water for at least 15 consecutive minutes in order to flush[industrialinjuryattorney.com]
  • Clothing must be removed and the skin must be flushed with water for at least 5 minutes. Irritated eyes must also be flushed with plain or saline water for 5 minutes. Remove contact lenses if they are being worn by affected persons.[health24.com]
  • Remember to flush underneath eyelids. Always begin flushing immediately. This reduces injuries, caused as soon as anhydrous ammonia contacts skin or clothes. If water is not immediately available, use any non-toxic liquid such as cold coffee.[nasdonline.org]
Altered Mental Status
  • This may result in low blood oxygen levels and an altered mental status. Mucosal burns to the tracheobronchial tree can also occur. Immediate onset of laryngospasm with respiratory arrest can occur.[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • […] capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) monitoring – In cases of severe acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS Pulmonary function tests Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scan Bronchoscopy – In severe acute inhalation injury Endoscopy – In significant ingestion exposures See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • The final decision regarding which treatment is used for an individual patient remains the clinical responsibility of the prescriber.[medicinesinpregnancy.org]
  • Each chapter includes key clinical features and potential treatment options to help physicians to assess the potential severity of the poisoned patient and provide the optimum clinical care.[books.google.com]
  • Treatment for Exposure to Nitrogen Oxide Gas Treatment of casualties with symptoms of pulmonary irritation is the same as for CG poisoning (chap 5).[inspectapedia.com]
  • . , symptoms resolve without any treatment. “If there is a silver lining, it is that it is not likely that exposure would happen without the person knowing.[healthland.time.com]

Prognosis

  • Ammonia Gas Properties, Exposure Pathology, Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis The following information about exposure to ammonia gas hazards is based on information from U.S.[inspectapedia.com]
  • Susceptibility to farming-related COPD appears to be heightened in farmers with underlying atopy. [ 3 ] Prognosis Most individuals with ammonia inhalation who survive the first 24 hours will recover.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology Agriculture-related ammonia injury most often results from either ammonia leaks in fertilizer tanks and hoses or toxic ammonia levels in animal confinement buildings, where ammonia is adsorbed by dust particles that transport it more directly[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology The 2014 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System reported 2,083 single exposures of ammonia, with no deaths.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology and management of hepatic encephalopathy 2014 update: Ammonia toxicity and hyponatremia. Hepatol Res . 2015 Jan 20. [Medline] .[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that there are various symptoms and health concerns that can be a result of anhydrous ammonia exposure.[industrialinjuryattorney.com]
  • Can ammonia-producing tasks be enclosed by barriers that prevent gas from leaking into other areas of the workplace? Administrative controls These involve changing work practices and work policies.[worksafebc.com]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says , anhydrous ammonia can cause eye, nose and throat irritation, breathing difficulty and burns.[healthland.time.com]
  • These systems are designed and built to strict standards and codes developed to prevent accidental releases.[teamster.org]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!