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Exposure to Ammonia

Ammonia Exposure


Presentation

  • Presented in an easy-to-use double-page spread format, highly bulleted and concise, the Oxford Desk Reference: Toxicology is ideal for quick referral when an acute problem arises.[books.google.com]
  • Hydrogen sulfide can be present on oil and gas rigs, but it can also be present in locations where oil and gas are refined, such as industrial plants. The gas is present in mining and pulp and paper processing.[industrialinjuryattorney.com]
  • The patients with exposure to highly water-soluble gases like formaldehyde, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide can also present with mucosal irritation and secretions; it is possible, although unproven, if glycopyrrolate can benefit these patients.[onlinejets.org]
  • If the odor of ammonia is present, notify a person in authority immediately. How is ammonia used? More than 80% of ammonia produced is used for agricultural purposes; less than two percent is used for refrigeration.[teamster.org]
  • Ammonia in livestock facilities results primarily from the breakdown of urea (present in urine) by the enzyme urease (excreted in feces). In poultry, urease is excreted with uric acid.[www1.agric.gov.ab.ca]
Hypoxemia
  • Indications for intubation include severe respiratory distress (hypoxemia, hypercapnia), stridor, hoarseness, deep facial burns, burns, and depressed mental status.[onlinejets.org]
Fishing
  • Fish Shellfish Immunol 29:623–629 CrossRef Google Scholar Cooper CE, Giulivi C (2007) Nitric oxide regulation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption II: molecular mechanism and tissue physiology.[link.springer.com]
Cough
  • It is extremely irritating, you start coughing and sneezing, and the first thing you want to do is get the hell out of there.” The odor makes it fairly easy for Fire Department responders to monitor for presence of the gas, says Langerman.[healthland.time.com]
  • […] respiratory tract, ocular system, skin, and gastrointestinal tract (only if ingested). 2 Ammonia destroys the mucosal barrier of the respiratory tract, causing loss of cilia, edema, and smooth muscle contraction. 3,4 Long-term effects include chronic cough[mdedge.com]
  • I start coughing horribly and can hardly breathe. So I know how gross it is. At the place I used to work, if I had to go in early in the morning it was always in the air as they had just cleaned the floors.[mothering.com]
  • This will be followed by tears running from your eyes, a runny nose and coughing. Exposure to ammonia can be fatal if the gas is inhaled deeply.[health24.com]
  • AIRWAYS, LUNGS, AND CHEST Cough Chest pain (severe) Chest tightness Difficulty breathing Rapid breathing Wheezing BODY-WIDE SYMPTOMS Fever EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, AND THROAT Tearing and burning of eyes Temporary blindness Throat pain (severe) Mouth pain[medlineplus.gov]
Dyspnea
  • Symptoms of anhydrous ammonia exposure include eye, nose, and throat irritation; dyspnea; wheezing; chest pain; pulmonary edema; pink frothy sputum; skin burns; vesiculation; and frostbite.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Our patient had stridor, dyspnea, excessive secretions, and altered mental state but we could avoid intubation in him by using a combination of steroids and anti-secretory agent like glycopyrrolate.[onlinejets.org]
  • Signs and Symptoms of Acute Ammonia Exposure: Inhalation of ammonia may cause irritation and burns of the respiratory tract, laryngitis, dyspnea (shortness of breath), stridor (high-pitched respirations), and chest pain.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
Hemoptysis
  • Copious secretions, sloughed epithelium, cellular debris, edema, and reactive smooth muscle contraction causes significant airway obstruction especially in a person with underlying reactive airway disease. [4] Pain (oropharyngeal, retrosternal), dyspnea, hemoptysis[onlinejets.org]
Nausea
  • Inhalation leads to nervous system damage, headache, dizziness, nausea and other symptoms. Skin exposure leads to the same symptoms with the added risk of dermatitis.[industrialinjuryattorney.com]
  • Exposure to a low concentration of ammonia vapor can: Irritate the nose, mouth, and throat; Irritate the lungs, causing coughing and or shortness of breath; Irritate the eyes and skin, causing a burning sensation; Cause headache, nausea and vomiting;[teamster.org]
  • When ammonia is ingested, nausea and vomiting may result; oral, esophageal, and stomach burns are common. If ammonia has contacted the eyes, irritation, pain, conjunctivitis (red, inflamed eyes), lacrimation (tearing), and corneal erosion may occur.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
Vomiting
  • DO NOT give water or milk if the person is having symptoms (such as vomiting, convulsions, or a decreased level of alertness) that make it hard to swallow. If the poison was inhaled, immediately move the person to fresh air.[medlineplus.gov]
  • DO NOT induce vomiting or attempt to neutralize! 3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures. 4.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
  • Exposure to a low concentration of ammonia vapor can: Irritate the nose, mouth, and throat; Irritate the lungs, causing coughing and or shortness of breath; Irritate the eyes and skin, causing a burning sensation; Cause headache, nausea and vomiting;[teamster.org]
Choking
  • Internationally, the UK is a signatory to the international UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollutants (LRTAP); and the Gothenburg UN/ECE Protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication (where over-fertilisation causes water bodies to become "choked[apps.sepa.org.uk]
  • Medical Management Guidelines Respiratory Agents, such as Choking, Lung, or Pulmonary ones, cause severe irritation/swelling to the respiratory tract. Background Information Synonyms include ammonia gas, anhydrous ammonia, and liquid ammonia.[sccgov.org]
  • If the nose or throat is exposed, flood the area repeatedly for 15 minutes, being careful not to choke the victim. Even a brief or mild exposure to the eyes requires irrigation for a minimum of 15 minutes. Remember to flush underneath eyelids.[nasdonline.org]
Xerostomia
  • Xerostomia and cycloplegia might actually benefit the patients with toxic exposure to ammonia gas.[onlinejets.org]
Chest Pain
  • Symptoms of anhydrous ammonia exposure include eye, nose, and throat irritation; dyspnea; wheezing; chest pain; pulmonary edema; pink frothy sputum; skin burns; vesiculation; and frostbite.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • AIRWAYS, LUNGS, AND CHEST Cough Chest pain (severe) Chest tightness Difficulty breathing Rapid breathing Wheezing BODY-WIDE SYMPTOMS Fever EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, AND THROAT Tearing and burning of eyes Temporary blindness Throat pain (severe) Mouth pain[medlineplus.gov]
  • Signs and Symptoms of Acute Ammonia Exposure: Inhalation of ammonia may cause irritation and burns of the respiratory tract, laryngitis, dyspnea (shortness of breath), stridor (high-pitched respirations), and chest pain.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
Weak Pulse
  • pulse Collapse and shock NERVOUS SYSTEM Confusion Difficulty walking Dizziness Lack of coordination Restlessness Stupor (altered level of consciousness) SKIN Bluish-colored lips and fingernails Severe burns if contact is longer than a few minutes STOMACH[medlineplus.gov]
Blurred Vision
  • It has been used for its antimuscarinic actions in organophosphate poisoning. [7] Glycopyrrolate, in high dose, can produce xerostomia (dry mouth), blurred vision, photophobia due to mydriasis, and cycloplegia.[onlinejets.org]
Flushing
  • The rain will flush it out of the air and very quickly dilute it out and into the soil where it will actually act as fertilizer.[healthland.time.com]
  • Clothing must be removed and the skin must be flushed with water for at least 5 minutes. Irritated eyes must also be flushed with plain or saline water for 5 minutes. Remove contact lenses if they are being worn by affected persons.[health24.com]
  • Remember to flush underneath eyelids. Always begin flushing immediately. This reduces injuries, caused as soon as anhydrous ammonia contacts skin or clothes. If water is not immediately available, use any non-toxic liquid such as cold coffee.[nasdonline.org]
  • Immediately and briefly flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water. DO NOT attempt to rewarm. Cover both eyes with a sterile dressing. DO NOT allow victim to drink alcohol or smoke. Ingestion: Not applicable (gas).[ccohs.ca]
  • If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless told otherwise by a health care provider.[medlineplus.gov]

Workup

Hypercapnia
  • Indications for intubation include severe respiratory distress (hypoxemia, hypercapnia), stridor, hoarseness, deep facial burns, burns, and depressed mental status.[onlinejets.org]

Treatment

  • Each chapter includes key clinical features and potential treatment options to help physicians to assess the potential severity of the poisoned patient and provide the optimum clinical care.[books.google.com]
  • ., symptoms resolve without any treatment. “If there is a silver lining, it is that it is not likely that exposure would happen without the person knowing.[healthland.time.com]
  • All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied.[link.springer.com]
  • Treatment: Skin Exposure If ammonia gas or solution was in contact with the skin, chemical burns may result. Treat as thermal burns.[sccgov.org]
  • Even with treatment, the effects of lead exposure are difficult to undo, leading to chronic issues. If you may have been exposed to toxic substances, talk to our toxic exposure lawyers.[industrialinjuryattorney.com]

Prevention

  • Employers are required to minimize exposure to benzene to prevent its detrimental effects, even in high-risk industries.[industrialinjuryattorney.com]
  • Can ammonia-producing tasks be enclosed by barriers that prevent gas from leaking into other areas of the workplace? Administrative controls These involve changing work practices and work policies.[worksafebc.com]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says, anhydrous ammonia can cause eye, nose and throat irritation, breathing difficulty and burns.[healthland.time.com]
  • These systems are designed and built to strict standards and codes developed to prevent accidental releases.[teamster.org]

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