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Exposure to Chloropicrin

Chloropicrin (ps) Exposure


Presentation

  • Several challenges associated with the development of toxicant exposure and cell culture methods suitable for HTS studies are presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chloropicrin does not present a risk of concern to wild mammals, birds, bees, invertebrates, freshwater or marine invertebrates, fish and amphibians.[hc-sc.gc.ca]
Swelling
  • In their gaseous form, they operate primarily by irritating the respiratory tract-including the mucous membranes, nasal passage, throat, airways, and lungs-and inducing swelling in these areas.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
Cough
  • Some patients with severe coughs fail to develop serious lung injury, while o thers with little sign of early respiratory tract irritation develop fatal pulmonary edema.[floridapesticides.com]
  • Chlorine gas often caused victims to cough and choke violently; phosgene, by contrast, caused much less coughing, resulting in increased gas inhalation. 2 Military forces even formulated a "white star" concoction consisting of a phosgene-chlorine mix,[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • From 2002 to 2011, 787 people suffered symptoms including watery eyes, irritated lungs, coughing and headaches as a result of exposure to chloropicrin gas, state records show.[latimes.com]
  • , chest tightness, short breath, painful breathing, watery eyes Pulmonary edema, lung congestion and asphyxiation might not arise until 2-24 hours after overexposure Coughing, bloody sputum and general malaise may persist for several months Lung disease[sailhome.org]
  • Exposure to vapors leads to coughing, labored breathing, sore throat, dizziness, bluish skin, vomiting, and in some instances, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. [2] Contact with skin or eyes Contact with chloropicrin can lead to chemical burns[emedicine.medscape.com]
Nausea
  • Nausea and vomiting may appear. As the edema progresses, discomfort, apprehension and dyspnea increase and frothy sputum develops. The patient may develop shock-like symptoms, with pale, clammy skin, low blood pressure and feeble, rapid heartbeat.[floridapesticides.com]
  • Nausea, vomiting (emesis), and diarrhea. Headache. Dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anxiety, lethargy, and fatigue. Bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis) is possible due to methemoglobinemia.[change.org]
  • DELAYED EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE : Persons exposed to chloropicrin (PS) as a war gas were reported to have experienced nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea lasting for weeks.[cdc.gov]
  • Exposed persons reported the following signs and symptoms: Eye pain, burning, or lacrimation (in 99% of cases) Respiratory symptoms, including cough, dyspnea, or upper respiratory irritation (51%) Gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting,[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] thoracic and respiratory distress, the immediate effects of choking agent exposure also include burning of the eyes, nose, and throat. 14 Chlorine and phosgene gas may also cause blistering and skin lesions, blurred vision, excessive tear formation, nausea[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
Abdominal Pain
  • pain, or diarrhea (47%) Headache (25%) Mortality/Morbidity Fatal chloropicrin exposures have been reported.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Heart Failure
  • failure. 14 Chloropicrin exposure causes skin irritation, chemical burns, and vomiting, and it inflicts severe damage upon the respiratory lining. 15 The long-term results of choking agent exposure include permanent damage to the lung tissues and heart[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • An intentional ingestion of 100 mL of chloropicrin sodium solution resulted in death from metabolic acidosis and acute heart failure approximately 7 hours after ingestion. [5] Homicidal intoxication has also been reported, in which an 18-year-old female[emedicine.medscape.com]
Lacrimation
  • Under normal atmospheric conditions, chloropicrin is a volatile, colourless to faint yellow oily liquid, with an extremely irritating and penetrating smell that induces lacrimation.[medicinesinpregnancy.org]
  • Chloropicrin is a lacrimator.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Eye tearing (lacrimation) is prominent."[change.org]
  • Eye tearing (lacrimation) is prominent. EYE EXPOSURE : Intense painful irritation, tear production (lacrimation), and eye damage.[cdc.gov]
Suggestibility
  • This suggests that current methods of fumigant containment and/or buffer zone requirements are insufficient under some circumstances.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] effects is based in part on observations made about animals LD50 for ingestion by rats is 100 mg/kg (100 ppm) LC50 for 4-hour inhalation by rats is 1000 ppm Hydrolysis half-life can range from 20 minutes to 3 days Dow's own research on rat metabolism suggests[sailhome.org]
  • However, new research suggests that the tasty fruit comes with a heavy price for local communities because of the extensive use of harmful pesticides.[foreffectivegov.org]
  • The effect on the eyes, however is instantaneous, suggests a physical or a molecular effect, and is a striking example of specificity.[gwpda.org]
Headache
  • From 2002 to 2011, 787 people suffered symptoms including watery eyes, irritated lungs, coughing and headaches as a result of exposure to chloropicrin gas, state records show.[latimes.com]
  • Headache. Dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anxiety, lethargy, and fatigue. Bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis) is possible due to methemoglobinemia.[change.org]
  • To this group belong: CG - phosgene DP - diphosgene Cl - chlorine PS - chloropicrin During and immediately after exposure, there is likely to be coughing, choking, a feeling of tightness in the chest, nausea, and occasionally vomiting, headache and lachrymation[floridapesticides.com]
  • […] following signs and symptoms: Eye pain, burning, or lacrimation (in 99% of cases) Respiratory symptoms, including cough, dyspnea, or upper respiratory irritation (51%) Gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or diarrhea (47%) Headache[emedicine.medscape.com]
Hyperactivity
  • Residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and IQ, attention and hyperactivity in 7-year old children. Environ Res. 2017 Oct. 158:358-365. [Medline]. O'Malley MA, Edmiston S, Richmond D, Ibarra M, Barry T, Smith M, et al.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Neglect
  • Citing a long EPA history of “inhumane neglect of toxic pesticide effects on farmworker community health,” the groups asked the Administrator to amend a recent May 2009 decision that allows the continued use of hazardous soil fumigant pesticides.[beyondpesticides.org]

Workup

  • Workups performed after symptomatic chloropicrine exposure should include CK-level determination.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Workup Diagnosis Treatment Complications Causes Epidemiology Incidence. SAFETY DATA SHEET _____. The odor threshold is reportedly. Exposure to Chloropicrin.[markets-acquire.gq]

Treatment

  • There are no guidelines regarding the treatment of chloropicrin poisoning during pregnancy. Where required, treatment should be the same as for the non-pregnant patient.[medicinesinpregnancy.org]
  • Treatments for toxicant-induced corneal injury are generally supportive as no specific therapeutics exist to treat these injuries.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fumigation is an effective treatment technique however, it’s not a prevention method. Fumigation controls drywood termite colonies that are active at the time of treatment, but offers no protection against future colonies.[termites.com]
  • Chloropicrin exposure symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for. Page of emergency medical treatment guide chloropicrin vapor exposure resulting from treated field vapor. With alternative diagnoses.[markets-acquire.gq]

Prognosis

Epidemiology

  • Workup Diagnosis Treatment Complications Causes Epidemiology Incidence. SAFETY DATA SHEET _____. The odor threshold is reportedly. Exposure to Chloropicrin.[markets-acquire.gq]
  • Epidemiology Frequency United States Chloropicrin is commonly used as a soil fumigant for agricultural pest control. [3] Human exposures have occurred in the United States, usually in residential areas in close proximity to agricultural areas.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Inhalation Overexposure leads to irritation of the nose and throat. Chloropicrin is a lacrimator.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Examination of the previously discussed Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program cases revealed that conducting the applications according to label directions and local permit conditions was not always adequate to prevent off-site exposure or resultant[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Putnam, Commissioner Continue Reading Link: Dimethyl Disulfide - Quoted Text, "Workers are required to wear personal protective equipment to prevent harmful exposures." Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services Adam H.[change.org]
  • Growers will be restricted to fumigating 40 acres a day unless they use stronger tarps to prevent the chemical from drifting away.[latimes.com]
  • It is more difficult to prevent drywood termite infestations than subterranean termite infestations, since there are more potential entry points for drywood termites.[termites.com]
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Emergency Preparedness and Response website. April 12, 2013. . Accessed February 26, 2014. Facts about chlorine.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]

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