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Fasciola Hepatica

Liver Fluke


Presentation

  • Fasciola hepatica can have an initial presentation similar to the presentation of malignancy. Here, we report a case of a hepatic mass caused by fasciola hepatica.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of fascioliasis, which was difficult to differentiate from cholangiocarcinoma. A 47-year-old woman from Eastern Turkey presented with fever, right upper quadrant abdominal pain, and jaundice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here we present our case with hepatic abscess due to F. hepatica, which is a rare clinical presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 58-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic 5cm left anterior cervical tumor that had been present for over a year. Histological analysis revealed chronic inflammation and granuloma with giant cells surrounding Fasciola hepatica eggs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Obtaining a detailed travel history and recognizing the clinical presentation early in the course of infection may permit timely and noninvasive identification of infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sputum
  • Found in sputum, occasionally in feces. Resembles egg of D. latum but is larger, slightly asymmetrical, and the operculum is smaller and flatter.[doi.org]
Biliary Colic
  • Patient may be asymptomatic or presents with jaundice and biliary colic or right hypochondriac pain due to bile duct obstruction with gastrointestinal symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • colic, nausea, epigastric pain, jaundice, fever, right upper quadrant tenderness Leukocytosis with cholangitis; anemia may ensue; imaging may be consistent with cholecystitis or reveal worms in the bile ducts Chronic Advanced chronic Years Consequences[doi.org]

Workup

  • […] will often show elevated cholestatic liver enzyme levels, and in endemic areas, this laboratory finding raises suspicion of the diagnosis. 5 In nonendemic areas, elevated cholestatic liver enzyme levels associated with abdominal pain usually leads to workup[cmaj.ca]
Enlargement of the Liver
  • Besides the presence of eggs in the stools, her liver was enlarged and tender. Liver function tests revealed hepato-biliary involvement with increase in serum AKP and ALT.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Staphylococcus Aureus
  • The cells were treated with F. hepatica Teg (15 μg/ml) for 2.5 h prior to stimulation with LPS ( Escherichia coli 0111:B4; Alexis and Sigma Aldrich; 100 ng/ml), zymosan A ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; 5 μg/ml), peptidoglycan (PGN) ( Staphylococcus aureus[doi.org]
Polyps
  • […] longitudinal madreporite male mantle cavity marine medusae membrane metamorphosis micronucleus mouth muscles muscular nephridia nephridium nervous system nucleus Obelia oesophagus oral organs ossicles outer pair papillae parasite pharynx Phylum Pila polyps[books.google.com]

Treatment

  • Coproparasitological observations carried out at 12, 18, 60 and 120 days post-treatment were negative. No clinical symptoms were registered up to 2 months after treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In surgical cases, external drainage of the bile is both crucial in observing the response to the treatment, and also should be accepted as part of the treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At 72 h post-treatment, only one fluke remained alive and the disruption varied in degree.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Faecal samples may be taken to help confirm if such treatments are necessary.[nadis.org.uk]
  • All patients were followed until a complete response was achieved or for 6 mo after treatment discontinuation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis The disease rarely kills in humans. The prognosis is excellent with adequate treatment. Prevention Water-grown vegetables should be washed with 6% vinegar or potassium permanganate for 5-10 minutes, which kills the encysted metacercariae.[patient.co.uk]
  • Opisthorchis viverrini is notable, because it is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 3 and is a significant risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a deadly cancer of the biliary tree, with a very poor prognosis[doi.org]

Etiology

  • In the differential diagnosis of biliary obstruction with unknown etiology, biliary fascioliasis should be considered in endemic and nonendemic regions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology of the cerebral hemorrhages was investigated by digital subtraction angiography, and cerebral aneurysm was entertained. Twenty-six days after his admission to the hospital, a flatworm emerged from the right eye of the patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • INTRODUCTION: The etiology of several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases remains largely unknown. Although Fasciola hepatica has been associated with liver fibrosis in Latin America, it has not yet been associated with HCC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Two contigs from the F. hepatica Oregon assembly were joined to complete the 859,205 bp genome of a novel Neorickettsia endobacterium (nFh) closely related to the etiological agents of human Sennetsu and Potomac horse fevers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Funding: Sequencing of the genomes of Fasciola/Neorickettsia was supported by the ‘Sequencing the etiological agents of the Food-Borne Trematodiases’ project (NIH-NHGRI award number U54HG003079).[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: The pre-existence of F. hepatica infection in HCC patients needs to be further investigated in epidemiological and experimental studies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To better understand their significance, each chapter covers the biology, mechanisms of pathogenesis, epidemiology, treatment, and inactivation of these parasites.[books.google.com]
  • This allows to understand the transmission and epidemiological differences between Andean highlands and non-Andean lowlands in South America.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology of human fascioliasis: a review and proposed new classification. Bull World Health Organ. 1999; 77 (4): 340-6 6. Rondelaud D, Hourdin P, Vignoles P, Dreyfuss G.[intjinfection.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Laboratory Identification of Parasites of Public Health Concern website. 20 Table 1 Classification of Fascioliasis by Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings Phase Time Frame Pathophysiology[doi.org]
  • Incidence of human infection has increased over the past 20 years. [2, 3, 4] Pathophysiology Sheep, cattle and goats are the definitive hosts. Other alternate herbivore hosts are horses, pigs, buffaloes, donkeys and pigs.[emedicine.com]
  • The discoveries in our manuscript have wide impact for the fields of both the pathophysiology and evolution of Fasciola and related FBTs, and the transmission strategies of Neorickettsia.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • Despite those interactions, the persistence of the parasite in the host for many years provides evidence of its ability to prevent or downmodulate the inflammatory response in the infection site.[eurekaselect.com]
  • With a focus on the requirements from industry, we discuss the strategies by which these molecules may be clinically developed to control human immune responses in a way that is conducive to the prevention of immune-mediated diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This study demonstrates that components of the tegumental surface of F. hepatica can be defined using proteomic approaches, but also indicates the need to prevent vomiting if tegument secretions are to be characterised.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Alternatives include bithionol, available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Drug Service, Atlanta, GA.[doi.org]
  • Use of molluscicides is the most frequent public health intervention, as it prevents the transmission of many other trematodes, including Schistosoma spp. Treatment of animals to reduce the reservoir and reduce stock losses has been used.[patient.co.uk]

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