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Female Genital Mutilation


Presentation

  • Paper presented at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo 1994. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994. World Health Organization: Health Population and development. WHO Position.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Julie Turkewitz, "Effects of Ancient Custom Present New Challenge to U.S. Doctors: Genital Cutting Cases Seen More as Immigration Rises", The New York Times, 6 February 2015.[en.wikipedia.org]
Swelling
  • Immediate complications can include: severe pain excessive bleeding (haemorrhage) genital tissue swelling fever infections e.g., tetanus urinary problems wound healing problems injury to surrounding genital tissue shock death.[who.int]
  • Common short-term complications include swelling, excessive bleeding, pain, urine retention, and healing problems/ wound infection.[en.wikipedia.org]
Plethora
  • Khan: The plethora of adverse health outcomes that come with this are many. (They include) impacting women's labor and delivery outcomes (and) ranging from infections to hemorrhaging, to even death.[voanews.com]
Disability
  • In addition to the pain when carried out, it comes with considerable health risks to the person which require corrective surgery not easily available, disable her for life, and increasing risk in giving birth to mother and baby.[ifsw.org]
Collapse
  • Regardless of the acceptance of FGM as a crime since the 1990s, the first legislation was confirmed only in 2015, and the one and only case brought to trial collapsed quickly due to lack of evidence.[ifsw.org]
Ulcer
  • Women may experience chronic pain, chronic pelvic infections, development of cysts, abscesses and genital ulcers, excessive scar tissue formation, infection of the reproductive system, decreased sexual enjoyment and psychological consequences, such as[endfgm.eu]
Fear
  • When a vaginal opening is covered or narrowed (type 3), the fear of the pain of opening it, and the fear that this will be found out, is expected to further discourage extramarital sexual intercourse among women with this type of FGM.[who.int]
  • Mariya Taher, who heads an anti-FGM campaign out of Cambridge, Massachusetts, fears the dismissal of charges in the Michigan case will put more young women in harm's way. ”Unfortunately, this is going to embolden those who believe that this must be continued[eu.freep.com]
  • The young girl is in constant fear of the procedure and after the ritual she dreads sex because of anticipated pain and dreads childbirth because of complications caused by FGM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honour and fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion. [8] Adverse health effects depend on the type of procedure[en.wikipedia.org]
Withdrawn
  • Such girls may not complain but end up becoming frigid and withdrawn resulting in marital disharmony.[ 3 ] Current situation of FGM in Nigeria FGM is widespread in Nigeria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PMID 9651425 Withdrawn policy: "Ritual Genital Cutting of Female Minors", Pediatrics, 25(5), 1 May 2010, 1088–1093.[en.wikipedia.org]
Suggestibility
  • Keywords: female genital mutilation, FGM, Female genital cutting, FGC, international human rights, women's rights, Africa, African-American, tradition, culture Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation Lewis, Hope, Between Irua and 'Female Genital Mutilation[papers.ssrn.com]
  • The review also suggested that there was under-reporting.[en.wikipedia.org]
Low Self-Esteem
  • self-esteem, etc.); health complications of female genital mutilation.[who.int]
Frigidity
  • Such girls may not complain but end up becoming frigid and withdrawn resulting in marital disharmony.[ 3 ] Current situation of FGM in Nigeria FGM is widespread in Nigeria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dyspareunia
  • A 2013 meta-analysis of 15 studies involving 12,671 women from seven countries concluded that women with FGM were twice as likely to report no sexual desire and 52 percent more likely to report dyspareunia (painful sexual intercourse).[en.wikipedia.org]
Cesarean Section
  • This procedure, also called re-circumcision, is primarily performed after vaginal delivery, but can also be performed before marriage, after cesarean section, after divorce, and sometimes even in elderly women as a preparation before death."[en.wikipedia.org]
Excitement
  • Molly Blythe, a lawyer for Nagarwala, said in an email: “We are very excited about today’s ruling, although the victory is bittersweet given we fully anticipated our client to be vindicated at trial on those charges.”[reuters.com]
  • Khan: We're excited about that. It gives us hope that this can be stopped, and we thank them for their efforts. Phillips: What was your reaction to the ruling in Detroit (Michigan) last November striking down the anti-FGM law? Khan: At the U.S.[voanews.com]
Screaming
  • The historic case involves nine minor girls from Michigan, Illinois and Minnesota, including some who cried, screamed and bled during the genital cutting procedures and one who was given Valium ground in liquid Tylenol to keep her calm, court records[eu.freep.com]
  • By now, the child is screaming, struggling, and bleeding profusely, which makes it difficult for the circumciser to hold with bare fingers and nails the slippery skin and parts that are to be cut or sutured together. ...[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • […] death through severe bleeding leading to haemorrhagic shock, neurogenic shock as a result of pain and trauma, and overwhelming infection and septicaemia, according to Manfred Nowak, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment[endfgm.eu]
  • The practice also violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death.[who.int]
  • Genital Mutilation is a gross violation of human rights that denies women and girls their rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom from violence, the highest attainable standards of health, freedom from torture, cruel, inhumane and degrading treatments[cairde.ie]
  • It involves violation of rights of the children and violation of a person's right to health, security, and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Commentators highlight the voyeurism in the treatment of women's bodies as exhibits. Examples include images of women's vaginas after FGM or girls undergoing the procedure.[en.wikipedia.org]

Epidemiology

  • International Journal of Epidemiology. 12 (2): 138–144. doi : 10.1093/ije/12.2.138. ISSN 0300-5771. PMID 6874206. Elmusharaf, Susan; Elhadi, Nagla; Almroth, Lars (15 July 2006).[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 500,000 women and girls have either undergone, or are at risk of undergoing the procedure. Most, but not all, are immigrants to the U.S.[voanews.com]
  • This is due to the secrecy mentioned above which prevents witnesses from coming forward, and to relatively toothless legislation.[ifsw.org]
  • Other reasons are to prevent mother and child from dying during childbirth and for legal reasons (one cannot inherit property if not circumcised).[ 11 ] In some parts of Nigeria, the cut edges of the external genitalia are smeared with secretions from[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To ensure the effective implementation of the guidelines, WHO is developing tools for front-line health-care workers to improve knowledge, attitudes, and skills of health care providers in preventing and managing the complications of FGM.[who.int]
  • Irish Family Planning Association, Irish Aid, Refugee Information Service, National Women’s Council of Ireland, Somali Community Ireland, Somali Community in Ireland, Women’s Health Council, UNICEF Ireland Ireland ’s National Action Plan Key Goals: Prevent[cairde.ie]

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