Fibromas present as hard swellings or lumps that are typically painless. The tumors are well circumscribed and usually immobile.
Entire Body System
Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) showed 13q14 deletion in most neoplastic cells, a chromosomal alteration typically found in mammary myofibroblastoma. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Med 2009;360:2719) Nested reticular staining correlates with positive FOXL2 mutations (Int J Gynecol Pathol 2018;37:305) Endometrial stromal tumor: CD10 positive, whereas fibromas are invariably CD10 negative Positive for JAZF1 / SUZ12 gene fusions by FISH [pathologyoutlines.com]
Use of a novel FISH assay on paraffin-embedded tissues as an adjunct to diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Lab Investig. 2006;86(6):547–56. 29. Simons A, Shaffer LG, Hastings RJ. [bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomedcentral.com]
Jaw & Teeth
- Gingival Fibroma
Gingival fibromas and plantar fibromas are recommended to be surgically excised. Angiosarcomas are also treated by surgical removal, etc. [symptoma.com]
Three more cases of true gingival fibroma have been reported in literature since then . We describe a similar case of a true fibroma in the maxillary alveolar mucosa. 2. [hindawi.com]
Those with a generalized fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissues are said to have fibrous gingival hyperplasia or gingival fibromatosis.  In the oral cavity, buccal, labial, and lateral tongue sites account for 71% of all fibromas. [jdentlasers.org]
- Oral Pigmentation
Melanotic macules are the most common solitary pigmented melanocytic lesions in the oral mucosa, corresponding to 86.1% of melanocytic lesions of the mouth. Giant cell fibromas are reactive connective tissue lesions in the oral cavity. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Splinter Hemorrhage
Clinically, it presents with yellow discoloration along the entire nail plate, proximal splinter hemorrhages, and a tendency toward transverse overcurvature of the nail plate with prominent longitudinal ridging. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Subcutaneous Mass
Magnetic resonance imaging of the lesion demonstrated a lobulated subcutaneous mass plantar to the tarsal bones and inseparable from the fascia. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
On examination, the right wrist was slightly swollen with a palpable subcutaneous mass (diameter: approximately 2 cm); the mass was non-fluctuant and there was no obvious deformity (Fig. 1). He also had a tender point at the anatomist's snuff-box. [journals.lww.com]
Workup consists of a detailed history and physical examination.
- Complete blood count
- Tumor growth factors
A detailed physical examination along with imaging studies is sufficient to come to a diagnosis.
Treatment depends upon thy subtype of the fibroma. Intralesional curettage and cementation is an effective treatment strategy for chondromyxoid fibromas, providing satisfactory functional results with a low recurrence rate .
Gingival fibromas and plantar fibromas are recommended to be surgically excised. Angiosarcomas are also treated by surgical removal, etc. Aggressive treatment of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) including resection with negative margins is the treatment of choice .
Fibromas are benign tumors so they have an excellent prognosis. With appropriate treatment, all symptoms can be successfully relieved.
Complications of fibromas depend on the location and type of tumor. For instance, a gingival fibroma such as POF or giant cell fibroma may obstruct the oral and nasal cavity. Surface ulceration is common . A plantar fibroma may cause chronic heel pain. And like any other benign tumor, there is a chance, no matter how slight, that it may become premalignant or in some extremely rare cases, malignant.
Fibromas are majorly idiopathic. Some, however, are drug induced. For example, some fibromas arising in the gingiva can be the result of chronic use of some drugs. Drug induced gingival overgrowth has been associated with systemic use of phenytoin, cyclosporin and calcium channel blockers . Other causes include familial inheritance and benign overgrowth due to irritants.
The exact incidence of fibromas is unknown.
Fibromas can occur at any age. However, they are more common in adults.
Fibromas are connective tissue tumors so they can occur anywhere in the body. They arise from the mesenchyme either due to mutation in the cells or due to irritants, such as plaque in the case of oral cavity fibromas. Histologically, they are unencapsulated, hard, nodular masses of hyalinized connective tissue fibres arranged haphazardly.
The following are the most common type of fibromas:
- Oral cavity fibromas
Oral cavity fibromas
Some subtypes of oral cavity fibromas include:
- Peripheral ossifying fibroma
Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a reactive lesion of the gingival tissues that predominantly affects women and is usually located in the maxilla anterior to the molars . Surgical excision is the treatment of choice.
- Other gingival fibromas
Localised overgrowths of the gingiva such as peripheral fibroma, peripheral ossifying/cementifying fibroma, pyogenic granuloma and peripheral giant cell granuloma belong to a common group of lesions designated as focal reactive overgrowths (FROG) . They occur in response to chronic low-grade irritation of the oral mucosa.
Soft tissue angiofibroma is a recently described neoplasm that typically presents as a slowly growing, painless mass in the soft tissues of the lower extremities . A t(5;8) translocation has been found associated with it.
Histologically, the elastofibroma consists of collagen fibres and coarse elastic fibres that can be demonstrated by elastin stain . This subtype is fairly uncommon.
- Sclerotic fibroma
This type is an uncommon benign growth occurring most commonly in the skin either singly or it can be multifocal. The tumor cells are CD34 and vimentin positive .
Fibromas are non cancerous overgrowths of connective tissues like bone, soft tissues, skin, blood, etc.
Fibromas are generally idiopathic. Some, like oral cavity fibromas however, may be due to irritants such as chewing beetle nuts, a common practise in many South Asian countries. Others may be due to drug associated growth, familial inheritance predisposing to the condition and genetic mutations.
Patients generally complain of single or multiple painless swelling, associated with regional (area-wise) symptoms.
Treatment is surgical excision of the tumor.
Fibromas have no definite preventive measures. However, they can be avoided by safe guarding against external irritants and harmful drugs.
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- Dongari-Bagtzoglou A. Drug-associated gingival enlargement. J Periodontol. Oct 2004;75(10):1424-31. [Medline]
- Kale L, Khambete N, Sodhi S, Sonawane S. Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma: series of 5 cases. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2014 July;18(4):527-30 doi: 10.4103/0972-124X.138762.
- Parwani S, Parwani RN. Diagnosis and management of focal reactive overgrowths of gingival-a case series. H Mich Dent Assoc. 2014 July;96(7):36-47. PMID 25163184 [PubMed]
- Lee JJ, Bredella MA, Springfield DS, Neilson GP. Soft tissue angiofibroma: a case report. Skeletal Radiol 2014 March;43(3):403-7. doi: 10.1007/s00256-013-1742-0 PMID 24113908 [PubMed]
- Lee JH, An JS, Lee ES, Kwon SY, Kim YS. Comparison of sporadic sclerotic fibroma and solitary fibrous tumor in the oral cavity. Yonsei Med J. June 30 2007;48(3):535-9 [Medline].
- Manchandu R, Foote J, Alawi F. Elastofibroma presenting as an oral soft tissue mass. J Oral Pathol Med. Feb 2008;37(2):125-6. [Medline]
- Buchner A, Hansen LS. The histomorphologic spectrum of peripheral ossifying fibroma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. Apr 1987;63(4):452-61
- Bhamra JS, Al-Khateeb H, Dhinsa BS, Gikas PD, Tirabosco T, Pollock RC, Skinner JA, Aston WJ, Saifuddin A, Briggs TW. Chondromyxoid fibroma Management: a single institution experience of 22 cases. World J Surg Oncol. 2014 Sep 12;12(1):283.
- Wang BY. Head and Neck Pathology:SS13-1 Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma of Mandible. Pathology. 2014 Oct;46 Suppl 2:S18. doi 10.1097/01.PAT.0000454111.11437.36. PMID 25188081.