Fibromas present as hard swellings or lumps that are typically painless. The tumors are well circumscribed and usually immobile.
Jaw & Teeth
Clinically, it presents with yellow discoloration along the entire nail plate, proximal splinter hemorrhages, and a tendency toward transverse overcurvature of the nail plate with prominent longitudinal ridging. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Magnetic resonance imaging of the lesion demonstrated a lobulated subcutaneous mass plantar to the tarsal bones and inseparable from the fascia. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
On examination, the right wrist was slightly swollen with a palpable subcutaneous mass (diameter: approximately 2 cm); the mass was non-fluctuant and there was no obvious deformity (Fig. 1). He also had a tender point at the anatomist's snuff-box. [journals.lww.com]
Although JPOF is a rare pathological entity, neurosurgeons must consider this odontogenic lesion in the differential diagnosis of skull masses given the lesion's aggressive behavior and locally invasive growth. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
If it grows large enough it can cause joint deformities or interfere with everyday activities. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Workup consists of a detailed history and physical examination.
- Complete blood count
- Tumor growth factors
- CT scan to see the extent of growth
- Fine needle aspiration
A detailed physical examination along with imaging studies is sufficient to come to a diagnosis.
Treatment depends upon thy subtype of the fibroma. Intralesional curettage and cementation is an effective treatment strategy for chondromyxoid fibromas, providing satisfactory functional results with a low recurrence rate .
Gingival fibromas and plantar fibromas are recommended to be surgically excised. Angiosarcomas are also treated by surgical removal, etc. Aggressive treatment of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) including resection with negative margins is the treatment of choice .
Fibromas are benign tumors so they have an excellent prognosis. With appropriate treatment, all symptoms can be successfully relieved.
Complications of fibromas depend on the location and type of tumor. For instance, a gingival fibroma such as POF or giant cell fibroma may obstruct the oral and nasal cavity. Surface ulceration is common . A plantar fibroma may cause chronic heel pain. And like any other benign tumor, there is a chance, no matter how slight, that it may become premalignant or in some extremely rare cases, malignant.
Fibromas are majorly idiopathic. Some, however, are drug induced. For example, some fibromas arising in the gingiva can be the result of chronic use of some drugs. Drug induced gingival overgrowth has been associated with systemic use of phenytoin, cyclosporin and calcium channel blockers . Other causes include familial inheritance and benign overgrowth due to irritants.
The exact incidence of fibromas is unknown.
Fibromas can occur at any age. However, they are more common in adults.
Fibromas are connective tissue tumors so they can occur anywhere in the body. They arise from the mesenchyme either due to mutation in the cells or due to irritants, such as plaque in the case of oral cavity fibromas. Histologically, they are unencapsulated, hard, nodular masses of hyalinized connective tissue fibres arranged haphazardly.
The following are the most common type of fibromas:
- Oral cavity fibromas
Oral cavity fibromas
Some subtypes of oral cavity fibromas include:
- Peripheral ossifying fibroma
Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a reactive lesion of the gingival tissues that predominantly affects women and is usually located in the maxilla anterior to the molars . Surgical excision is the treatment of choice.
- Other gingival fibromas
Localised overgrowths of the gingiva such as peripheral fibroma, peripheral ossifying/cementifying fibroma, pyogenic granuloma and peripheral giant cell granuloma belong to a common group of lesions designated as focal reactive overgrowths (FROG) . They occur in response to chronic low-grade irritation of the oral mucosa.
Soft tissue angiofibroma is a recently described neoplasm that typically presents as a slowly growing, painless mass in the soft tissues of the lower extremities . A t(5;8) translocation has been found associated with it.
Histologically, the elastofibroma consists of collagen fibres and coarse elastic fibres that can be demonstrated by elastin stain . This subtype is fairly uncommon.
- Sclerotic fibroma
This type is an uncommon benign growth occurring most commonly in the skin either singly or it can be multifocal. The tumor cells are CD34 and vimentin positive .
A healthy life style and avoiding use of potentially harmful drugs as well as protection from external irritants may possibly prevent occurrence or recurrence of the tumors.
Fibromas are non cancerous overgrowths of connective tissues like bone, soft tissues, skin, blood, etc.
Fibromas are generally idiopathic. Some, like oral cavity fibromas however, may be due to irritants such as chewing beetle nuts, a common practise in many South Asian countries. Others may be due to drug associated growth, familial inheritance predisposing to the condition and genetic mutations.
Patients generally complain of single or multiple painless swelling, associated with regional (area-wise) symptoms.
Treatment is surgical excision of the tumor.
Fibromas have no definite preventive measures. However, they can be avoided by safe guarding against external irritants and harmful drugs.
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