Follicular mucinosis is a cutaneous disorder distinguished by the buildup of mucin in the sebaceous glands and the pilosebaceous follicles. It is associated with a number of diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, mycosis fungoides, and several dermatoses, but it may also arise as a separate clinical entity. The presence of single or multiple well-delineated erythematous plaques with alopecia is the typical presentation. Histological examination of the lesions is necessary to make the diagnosis.
Follicular mucinosis (also known as alopecia mucinosa) is a rare cutaneous disease characterized by the accumulation and deposition of mucin in hair follicles and sebaceous glands, with follicular keratinocytes being the presumable origin of excessive mucin    . The pathogenesis of follicular mucinosis is yet to be revealed, and the clinical presentation varies only slightly across different subtypes that have been described in the literature     
- Idiopathic (primary or benign) - In the absence of an underlying etiology that could be responsible for cutaneous symptoms, primary or idiopathic follicular mucinosis is predominantly encountered in children and young adults as solitary lesions in the form of erythematous plaques or nodules accompanied by alopecia on the head and neck area, including the face   . Plaques are well-demarcated, skin-colored or pink, show signs of scaling and spontaneously resolve within a period of months or years   . In some patients, a prolonged and more chronic course of the disease has been reported, distinguished by several relapses and dissemination of lesions on the trunk and the extremities .
- Secondary - The presence of generalized erythematous plaques and alopecia is almost universally associated with some underlying disorder   , and patients are much older compared to primary forms (40-70 years of age) . Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (cutaneous T-cell lymphomas) are two most important pathologies linked to follicular mucinosis; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), various dermatoses (eczema, alopecia areata, insect bites, etc.) have all been recognized in secondary forms of this cutaneous disorder    .
Alopecia mucinosa What causes alopecia mucinosa? The cause of alopecia mucinosa is unknown, but it may have something to do with circulating immune complexes and cell-mediated immunity. [dermnetnz.org]
KEYWORDS: alopecia areata; alopecia mucinosa; follicular mucinosis [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
From Wikidata Jump to navigation Jump to search Human disease Alopecia mucinosa Alopecia Mucinosis follicular mucinosis hair follicle cutaneous focal mucinosis edit English follicular mucinosis Human disease Alopecia mucinosa Alopecia Mucinosis follicular [wikidata.org]
This hair loss is reversible in the early stages, but once the disease advances, the hair follicles are destroyed, and Scarring alopecia occurs. List of cutaneous conditions [en.wikipedia.org]
- Acneiform Eruption
Reviewing the literature of follicular mucinosis appearing as an acneiform eruption of the face and neck, we were unable to find any case evolving in lymphoma, suggesting that this form is a particular clinical sub-type of follicular mucinosis with a [moh-it.pure.elsevier.com]
Each presented as an unusual acneiform eruption. Two of the cases demonstrated a clonal genetic rearrangement of the T-cell receptor within the cutaneous lymphoid infiltrate, a finding not previously reported. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Follicular Mucinosis Presenting as an Acneiform Eruption: Report of Four Cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38(5 Pt 2):849-51. PubMed PMID: 9591801. TY - JOUR T1 - Follicular mucinosis presenting as an acneiform eruption: report of four cases. [unboundmedicine.com]
All reported cases with syringolymphoid hyperplasia were men (10 of 10), with the clinical findings of alopecia (9 of 10) and anhidrosis (3 of 10). Only 3 of 10 cases had associated follicular mucinosis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Lesional pruritis or intense itching, dysethesia (burning or tingling sensation), and anhidrosis (the inability to sweat in response to heat) are documented clinical symptoms of alopecia mucinosa. [keratin.com]
- Follicular Hyperkeratosis
The skin lesion had follicular hyperkeratosis, and lacked hair. A skin biopsy specimen showed a dense perifollicular infiltration composed of lymphocytes, with an admixture of eosinophils in the full thickness of the dermis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Spiny follicular hyperkeratosis is a rare but characteristic paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestation of multiple myeloma. 3. [e-ijd.org]
hyperkeratosis and hair casts. ( 23723501 ) Gutte R.M. 2013 33 Follicular mucinosis presenting as an acneiform eruption: a follow-up study. ( 24257190 ) Brau-Javier C.N....SA! [malacards.org]
- Facial Papule
In both cases, pathological evaluation of the facial papules revealed predominantly mucinous degeneration of the follicular epithelium, with insufficient lymphocytic infiltration or atypia to diagnose mycosis fungoides. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Because of the wide differential diagnosis that may be seen with follicular mucinosis, particularly in older adults, the physician must conduct a thorough clinical investigation. Firstly, the course of symptoms, their severity, as well as their progression or possible relapse should be assessed. It must be noted that some of the underlying etiologies (eg. mycosis fungoides) might develop before, after, or together with follicular mucinosis, which is why a detailed personal history is essential in revealing disease that can point to the causative illness  . A meticulous inspection of the skin that will allow detection of typical erythematous plaques and alopecia is perhaps even more important in narrowing the number of possible diagnoses. To confirm follicular mucinosis, however, a biopsy of the lesion and subsequent histopathological examination is necessary   . Confirmation of mucin deposition in the external root of the hair follicle and sebaceous glands and an abundant lymphocytic infiltrate in the follicles are main microscopic findings  . Many studies have attempted to find histological criteria that could differentiate between idiopathic and secondary forms of follicular mucinosis, but the appearance of both subtypes on histology is virtually identical  . Thus, the classification rests on clinical criteria and the ability of the physician to recognize main clinical features.
No single treatment has been shown to be consistently effective. Topical bexarotene 1% gel should be considered for patients with idiopathic follicular mucinosis resistant to standard treatment. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] the literature of follicular mucinosis appearing as an acneiform eruption of the face and neck, we were unable to find any case evolving in lymphoma, suggesting that this form is a particular clinical sub-type of follicular mucinosis with a favorable prognosis [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Follicular mucinosis is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by accumulation of mucin in the sebaceous glands and outer root sheaths of the hair follicles. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] moderate to dense superficial and deep perivascular perifollicular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils, marked mucin deposition and conspicuous disruption of the follicular epitheliumThe pathologic diagnosis includes, “infectious etiology [vgrd.blogspot.com]
Picture Diseasesof the Skin and its Appendages Lethal Mutations Surviving by Mosaicism References Clinical Aspects Chapter 15Structural Anomalies of the Hair Shaft 6Diagnosis and Treatment Anomalies Without Increased Hair Fragility References Monilethrix Etiology [books.google.de]
Etiology The cause of follicular mucinosis isn’t clear, but there may be immune related factors that can be involved in the development of the disorder. [xpertdox.com]
Epidemiology Coexisting lymphoma associated with very poor prognosis Clinical features Also called follicular mucinosis Edematous and erythematous plaques of alopecia on head and neck Children: benign, self-limited Adults: associated with cutaneous T [pathologyoutlines.com]
Epidemiology Follicular mucinosis is a rare condition with both genders being involved; however males tend to be diagnosed more than females. [xpertdox.com]
Epidemiology and genetics of alopecia areata. Clin Exper Dermatol. 2002;27:405-09. Hordinsky M, Sawaya M, Roberts JL. Hair loss and hirsutism in the elderly. Clin Geriatr Med. 2002;18:121-33. Papadopoulos AJ, Schwartz RA, Janniger CK. [rarediseases.org]
Epidemiology and clinical features of atopic dermatitis in India. Indian J Dermatol 2011;56:471-5. [ PUBMED ] 3. Loffreda MD. Inflammatory diseases of hair follicles, sweat glands and cartilage. In: Elder DE, editor. [e-ijd.org]
(effective October 01, 2015) Signs and Symptoms Itchy, painful, peeling and reddened skin Ulcerated skin lesion s, which may become infected Diagnostic Exams Flow cytometry Immunophenotyping Peripheral blood smear Progression and Transformation None Epidemiology [seer.cancer.gov]
Case Overview alopecia mucinosa Member Rated 0 Patient case no. 1778 Date added 28 April 2003 Patient details Age --Undetermined-- Localisation Head / face / cheek Primary Lesions Papule / erythematous Alopecia / non scarring Pathophysiology deposition [dermquest.com]
Chapter 15Structural Anomalies of the Hair Shaft 6Diagnosis and Treatment Anomalies Without Increased Hair Fragility References Monilethrix Etiology and Pathogenesis Hypomelanotic Hair Disorders 2Modelsfor Cultivating Follicular Keratinocytes In Vitro Pathophysiological [books.google.de]
Pathophysiology It has been suggested that the keratinocytes that form the affected follicles produce intracellular mucin and they eventually degenerate, which is induced by the T lymphocytes of the infiltrate.  Causes The etiology of alopecia mucinosa [wikidoc.org]
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- Rongioletti F, De Lucchi S, Meyes D, et al. Follicular mucinosis: a clinico pathologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical and molecular study comparing the primary benign form and the mycosis fungoides - associated follicular mucinosis. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37:15–19.
- O'Reilly K, Brauer J, Loyd A, Patel R, Walters R, Franks AG Jr. Secondary follicular mucinosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Dermatol Online J. 2010;16(11):7.
- Rupnik H, Podrumac B, Zgavec B, Lunder T. Follicular mucinosis in a teenage girl. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2005;14(3):111-114.