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Food Poisoning due to Bacillus Cereus

Bacillus Cereus Food Poisoning


Presentation

  • The problem is that B. cereus spores are often present in uncooked rice. But because the spores are heat-resistant, they are not always killed when the rice is cooked, particularly if it is steamed or cooked too quickly.[giantmicrobes.com]
  • However, they are only present in small numbers and thus difficult to find. 6. Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter is commonly implicated in outbreaks involving predominantly children.[virology-online.com]
  • A 2-year-old sister who presented with unconsciousness recovered rapidly after plasma exchange and subsequent hemodialysis. Their mother recovered soon by fluid therapy.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Bacillus cereus numbers can double in less than 20 minutes when it is present in foods that are held at unsafe temperatures. Mighty Taco removed all refried beans, the suspect food, from its restaurants on October 6, 2016.[foodpoisoningbulletin.com]
  • A small volume of diarrhea may be present with the short-incubation version as well. Complications from Bacillus cereus food poisoning are rare. Most cases of Bacillus cereus food poisoning resolve themselves without medical treatment.[schmidtandclark.com]
Swelling
  • These toxins kill cells by making holes in the cell walls, so causing leakages and swelling which in turn leads to the disintegration of the cells.[sciencedaily.com]
Sepsis
  • Because B. cereus may be life-threatening if it has acquired the pOx1 plasmid, its presence in a culture collected from a patient with bacteremia, sepsis, and/or pneumonia should merit further investigation.[upmc-cbn.org]
Pneumonia
  • B. cereus pneumonia cases (2003 and 2004) that also harbored the pXO1 plasmid were described.[upmc-cbn.org]
  • “Characterization of Bacillus cereus Isolates Associated with Fatal Pneumonias: Strains Are Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis and Harbor B. anthracis Virulence.” Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006.[microbewiki.kenyon.edu]
Food Poisoning
  • Bacillus cereus has been recognized as a food poisoning agent since 1955. There are two types of Bacillus cereus food poisoning.[schmidtandclark.com]
  • […] security information) About Bacillus cereus food poisoning[pref.gunma.jp.e.aag.hp.transer.com]
  • Bacillus cereus cereulide food poisoning acute encephalopathy mitochondrial β-oxidation Accepted December 4, 2009.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • The food poisoning outbreak at Mighty Taco restaurants in Erie and Niagara Counties in New York state was caused by Bacillus cereus, Mary C. St. Mary of the Erie County Department of Health told Food Poisoning Bulletin.[foodpoisoningbulletin.com]
  • Food poisoning caused by aerobic spore-forming bacilli. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 18 :591–595. CrossRef Google Scholar Hobbs, B. C., M. E. Smith, C. L. Oakley, G. H. Warrack, and J. C. Cruickshank. 1953. Clostridium welchii food poisoning. J.[link.springer.com]
Vomiting
  • Frequent vomiting type happens by intake of toxin produced in polluted food by Bacillus cereus in the country.[pref.gunma.jp.e.aag.hp.transer.com]
  • Outbreak 2: On 9th of October 1977, 211 out of 1809 persons (11.7%) who had eaten a packed lunch (‘Onigiri’, ‘Maki-sushi’ and ‘Inari-sushi’) complained of nausea and vomiting after 0.5 to 6 hours.[jstage.jst.go.jp]
  • The form of the illness that causes nausea and vomiting is known as emetic. The toxin responsible for this is cereulide.[infectioncontroltoday.com]
  • One is a long-incubation form with diarrhea as the main symptom, and the other is a short-incubation form that causes bouts of nausea and vomiting.[schmidtandclark.com]
  • Bacillus cereus is a type of bacteria that produces a toxin that causes illness, usually resulting in vomiting within 30 minutes to 6 hours after eating contaminated food.[foodpoisoningbulletin.com]
Diarrhea
  • Bacillus cereus which we took in with food multiplies in the small intestine of Homo sapiens, and diarrhea type takes place by toxin causing produced diarrhea.[pref.gunma.jp.e.aag.hp.transer.com]
  • The long-incubation version creates heavy nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea 8 to 16 hours after ingesting the bacteria. A small volume of diarrhea may be present with the short-incubation version as well.[schmidtandclark.com]
  • The organism was conclusively implicated by Hauge in Norway in the early 1950's. 2 The illnesses were characterized by an incubation period averaging 10 to 12 hours, and abdominal pain, profuse watery diarrhea, tenesmus and nausea usually lasting not[nejm.org]
  • The toxins can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, or nausea and vomiting, depending on the toxin produced. The illness occurs quickly, within 30 minutes to 6 hours of exposure to the bacteria, and lasts about 24 hours.[foodpoisoningbulletin.com]
  • Depending on the toxin that is released by the bacteria, patients suffer either from diarrhea or from nausea and vomiting. The results can be more serious, however, with death occurring in some very rare cases.[infectioncontroltoday.com]
Nausea
  • The form of the illness that causes nausea and vomiting is known as emetic. The toxin responsible for this is cereulide.[infectioncontroltoday.com]
  • The short-incubation food poisoning results in nausea and vomiting 1 to 5 hours after consuming the contaminated food. The long-incubation version creates heavy nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea 8 to 16 hours after ingesting the bacteria.[schmidtandclark.com]
  • The organism was conclusively implicated by Hauge in Norway in the early 1950's. 2 The illnesses were characterized by an incubation period averaging 10 to 12 hours, and abdominal pain, profuse watery diarrhea, tenesmus and nausea usually lasting not[nejm.org]
  • Outbreak 2: On 9th of October 1977, 211 out of 1809 persons (11.7%) who had eaten a packed lunch (‘Onigiri’, ‘Maki-sushi’ and ‘Inari-sushi’) complained of nausea and vomiting after 0.5 to 6 hours.[jstage.jst.go.jp]
  • The toxins can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, or nausea and vomiting, depending on the toxin produced. The illness occurs quickly, within 30 minutes to 6 hours of exposure to the bacteria, and lasts about 24 hours.[foodpoisoningbulletin.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • The organism was conclusively implicated by Hauge in Norway in the early 1950's. 2 The illnesses were characterized by an incubation period averaging 10 to 12 hours, and abdominal pain, profuse watery diarrhea, tenesmus and nausea usually lasting not[nejm.org]
  • There is acute abdominal pain. The illness usually lasts 2-5 days. There are many serotypes. 8. Aeromonas hydrophilia Reports of outbreaks of A. Hydrophilia infections have come from India and Ethiopia.[virology-online.com]
  • pain, watery diarrhea. 4 prevention Bacillus cereus multiplies to form sporule of heat-resistant (resistant to heating of 90 60') when we leave even heated and cooked food at room temperature.[pref.gunma.jp.e.aag.hp.transer.com]
  • The long-incubation version creates heavy nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea 8 to 16 hours after ingesting the bacteria. A small volume of diarrhea may be present with the short-incubation version as well.[schmidtandclark.com]
  • Common clinical features: B. cereus - emetic syndrome: Nausea, vomiting; diarrhoeal syndrome: Diarrhoea, abdominal pain. B. subtilis - Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. B. licheniformis - diarrhoea, abdominal pain. Reservoir: No human or animal sources.[themeatsite.com]
Suggestibility
  • The cases also suggest the possible role of blood-purification therapy in severe cases. Bacillus cereus cereulide food poisoning acute encephalopathy mitochondrial β-oxidation Accepted December 4, 2009.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Descriptive Epidemiology 587 Mechanisms and Routes of Transmission 7 Pathogenesis and Immunity 590 Patterns of Host Response 591 Control and Prevention 592 References 593 Suggested Reading 595 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Theodore E Woodward and J Stephen[books.google.de]
  • As its name suggests, it is a rod-shaped bacterium; it is also gram positive.[typesofbacteria.co.uk]
  • ., suggesting that they should be classified as a single species. However, virulence factors and their ability to cause more than one type of food-borne illness argue against this.[thermofisher.com]
  • Technique Please note that the following is only intended as a suggested method of use.[oxoid.com]
Dizziness
  • A prodrome consisting of fever, headache, and dizziness may occur and this may last for a few hours to several days. The abdominal pain may persist once the diarrhoea has eased and symptoms may be more severe in adults than children.[virology-online.com]
  • Sometimes there may be cerebral manifestations, with dizziness and slight hallucination. Treatment is not usually necessary although gastric lavage may be helpful.[atsu.edu]

Workup

Gram-Positive Rods
  • BACILLUS cereus is an aerobic spore-forming, motile, gram-positive rod 1 that has been recognized as a cause of food-borne disease with increasing frequency in recent years.[nejm.org]
  • Description Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium that can produce toxins which cause food poisoning.[thermofisher.com]
  • […] caused by B. cereus illustrates that, under certain circumstances, B. cereus can be a deadly pathogen—a fact that has been known but often overlooked. 1 Microbiology of Bacillus The genus Bacillus comprises many species, all of which are spore-forming gram-positive[upmc-cbn.org]
  • Classification Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli Order: Bacillales Family: Bacillaceae Genus: Bacillus Species Group: Bacillus cereus group NCBI Species Bacillus cereus Description and significance Bacillus cereus is a large, 1 x 3-4 µm, Gram-positive[microbewiki.kenyon.edu]
Listeria Monocytogenes
  • ., Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter Infections, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus.[books.google.com]
  • monocytogenes Listeriosis 9-48 hrs for gastro-intestinal symptoms, 2-6 weeks for invasive disease Fever, muscle aches, and nausea or diarrhea.[fda.gov]
  • Respiratory support Intravenous trivalent antitoxin from CDC Listeria monocytogenes Raw and pasteurized milk, soft cheeses, raw vegetables, shrimp Systemic disease associated with bacteremia Intestinal symptoms precede systemic disease Can seed meninges[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • monocytogenes, and Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli 2 ( Table 1 3 ).[aafp.org]

Treatment

  • Most cases of Bacillus cereus food poisoning resolve themselves without medical treatment. Rehydration, either orally or intravenously, may be needed to replace fluids lost through vomiting or diarrhea.[schmidtandclark.com]
  • Causative Agents Source and Clinical Features Pathogenesis Diagnosis and Treatment Staphylococci Improperly stored foods with high salt or sugar content favors growth of staphylococci.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Good news is, B cereus causes a self limiting illness requiring no specific treatment, cheers to the immune system! _ You might require symptomatic treatment, never hesitate to see a doctor if you are nervous about your symptoms![immense-immunology-insight.blogspot.com]
  • Bacteria or cytotoxins damage the colonic mucosa blood in stool and fever Pathogen Association Foods/Transmission Incubation period Treatment Salmonella (100s of strains, including S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium ) Poultry/eggs Chicken products: eggs[amboss.com]
  • Atropine administration is the preferred treatment.[atsu.edu]

Etiology

  • […] abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com the Gideon e-book series. [1] (primary references available on request) Incidence and Prevalence: – Bacillus cereus food poisoning accounts for approximately 2% of food-related disease outbreaks with confirmed etiology[gideononline.com]
  • MM 302-304; ID 1185-1194 NONINFLAMMATORY GASTROENTERITIS - FOOD POISONING NAME OF DISEASE : Food poisoning Food toxemia Botulism ETIOLOGICAL AGENTS : Staphylococcus aureus (gram , aerobic, coccus) Bacillus cereus (gram , aerobic, rod) Clostridium perfringens[atsu.edu]
  • Microscopic evaluation for fecal polymorphonuclear leukocytes or lactoferrin measurements may be useful if an inflammatory etiology is suspected. A positive stool culture is more likely when analysis indicates an inflammatory process.[aafp.org]

Epidemiology

  • Author Affiliations From the Enteric Diseases Branch, Bacterial Diseases Division, Bureau of Epidemiology, Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, where reprint requests should be addressed to Dr. Terranova.[nejm.org]
  • Gideon e-books, Note featured on ProMED This entry was posted on Saturday, December 10th, 2011 at 11:55 am and is filed under Ebooks, Epidemiology, Outbreaks, ProMED. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed.[gideononline.com]
  • Descriptive Epidemiology 587 Mechanisms and Routes of Transmission 7 Pathogenesis and Immunity 590 Patterns of Host Response 591 Control and Prevention 592 References 593 Suggested Reading 595 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Theodore E Woodward and J Stephen[books.google.de]
  • The unusual conditions required to grow the organism have hindered its isolation and delayed epidemiological investigations. Person-to-person spread has been demonstrated and thus the dose level to initiate symptoms may be small.[virology-online.com]
  • Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases: Bacillus cereus Causal agent Bacillus cereus food poisoning is a gastrointestinal intoxication caused by toxins produced by the Bacillus cereus bacterium.[healthknowledge.org.uk]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • We come back to food security information top page About food poisoning due to Bacillus cereus (the Food Safety Commission, PDF: 494KB) (external link) Current position Top page Disaster prevention, consumers, food Food Food security information (food[pref.gunma.jp.e.aag.hp.transer.com]
  • To prevent this illness, cooked foods should always be refrigerated no longer than two hours after cooking. Hot foods must be kept over 140 F, and cold foods should be kept under 40 F.[foodpoisoningbulletin.com]
  • Descriptive Epidemiology 587 Mechanisms and Routes of Transmission 7 Pathogenesis and Immunity 590 Patterns of Host Response 591 Control and Prevention 592 References 593 Suggested Reading 595 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Theodore E Woodward and J Stephen[books.google.de]
  • Prevention of Bacillus cereus B. cereus spores actually thrive and activate at high temperatures. One way to prevent emetic form of this illness is to promptly cool down cooked foods, especially boiled rice.[ic.steadyhealth.com]
  • Time and temperature control following heat treatment is of prime importance to prevent extensive Bacillus cereus growth and/or formation of emetic toxin.[cfs.gov.hk]

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