The classical description of this rare condition, Foster-Kennedy syndrome, consists of four elements: ipsilateral optic nerve atrophy, contralateral papilledema, central scotoma, and anosmia while ipsilateral proptosis has also been described in some patients.
Based on the pathogenic mechanism, three types of Foster-Kennedy syndromes have been described :
The most prominent symptoms are, as expected, visual: unilateral or bilateral vision loss that, if left untreated, becomes permanent in time, visual field defects, reduced color vision, and central scotoma. Visual obscurations may also be temporary when intracranial or systemic blood pressure is transiently decreased. Symptoms regress if early treatment is applied  . Associated symptoms include nausea and vomiting as signs of intracranial hypertension , memory loss and emotional lability as an expression of frontal lobe involvement. Headaches and weakness may complete the clinical picture, which is slightly variable depending on the location of the pathological process  and pathogenic mechanism  .
Workup aims to identify the pathological process leading to the appearance of Foster-Kennedy syndrome and to evaluate the extent of optic nerve damage. Thus, computer tomography (CT)  and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain are useful tools . CT is optimum when trying to determine bone involvement and thus predict recurrence risk, whereas MRI better describes soft tissues.
Ocular evaluation should include fundus examination to determine the degree of papillary edema and observe disk swelling or pallor, nerve fiber layer evaluation with red-free light, color vision test, capillary number test (less than 10 capillaries on the optic disk suggest optic atrophy) and electrophysiological tests, in cases where symptoms do not match disk pallor. The assessment of the electrical activity of the visual cortex after retinal stimulation comprises two parameters, amplitude, and latency, both of which are affected due to optic nerve malfunction. Pupillary reflexes assessment should also be performed.