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Gardnerella Vaginitis


Presentation

  • Gard·ner·el·la \ ˌgärd-nə-ˈrel-ə \ Medical Definition of Gardnerella : a genus of bacteria of uncertain taxonomic affinities that includes one ( G. vaginalis synonym Haemophilus vaginalis ) often present in the flora of the healthy vagina and present[merriam-webster.com]
  • A thin/watery gray-white discharge is present A fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smell is intensified after unprotected intercourse or when KOH is added (AKA Positive Whiff Test).[stomponstep1.com]
  • An exhaustive review of the published literature on this topic is presented.[journals.lww.com]
  • This paper presents the results of the survey after an introduction beginning with a 1953 article in U.S. Armed Forces Medical Journal.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • If 3 out of 4 criteria are present, then it is highly suggestive of Bacterial vaginosis.[diseasesweb.org]
Collapse
  • […] sequences (alignment length 552 bp) of 68 cpn 60 sequences representing 112 isolates and 36 other isolates for which cpn 60 sequence was available from published genomes, using ClustalW and 100 bootstrap replicates in MEGA v6. cpn 60 sequences were collapsed[journals.plos.org]
Petechiae
  • Many leukocytes are seen on microscopic examination Patchy Erythema on cervix is referred to as Strawberry Petechiae. Note that this finding can be easily confused with Cervicitis (Gon/Chlyamdia).[stomponstep1.com]
Vaginal Discharge
  • Gardnerella affects the colour, smell and consistency of vaginal discharge. In a healthy woman, vaginal discharge is completely normal. However it should be clear or white and shouldn’t have a strong smell or a lumpy or watery consistency.[onlinedoctor.lloydspharmacy.com]
  • FSRH and BASHH Guidance (February 2012) Management of Vaginal Discharge in Non-Genitourinary Medicine Settings.[gpnotebook.co.uk]
  • It is good to have STD screening done if there is vaginal discharge and irritation.[diseasesweb.org]
  • Symptoms may include: Increased watery vaginal discharge Fishy or unpleasant vaginal discharge odor (especially after unprotected intercourse) Itchiness, burning or soreness around the vaginal opening Burning with urination Reviewed and revised by: Tina[livestrong.com]
  • […] fluid Your doctor may order other laboratory tests to look for other causes of vaginal discharge.[dallah-hospital.com]
Vaginal Odor
  • Diagnosis Your doctor will ask you to describe the vaginal odor and discharge.[drugs.com]
  • Bacterial Vaginosis (Gardnerella Vaginitis) Overview Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal odor and discharge. It is caused by a change in the type of bacteria found in the vagina.[dallah-hospital.com]
  • Published: March, 2019 Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal odor and discharge. It is caused by a change in the type of bacteria found in the vagina.[health.harvard.edu]
  • In others, it causes an unpleasant "fishy" vaginal odor and a yellow or white vaginal discharge. For some women, these symptoms are especially bothersome during or after intercourse. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12 13.[slideshare.net]
Dysuria
  • Symptomology characteristic of vaginitis is observed with pruritis of the labia as well as dysuria. A vaginal discharge with a pungent characteristic fishy odor is observed.[pathwaymedicine.org]
  • Inflammation leads to burning, itching, erythema, dysuria and dyspareunia. Many leukocytes are seen on microscopic examination Patchy Erythema on cervix is referred to as Strawberry Petechiae.[stomponstep1.com]
  • […] prevalence in pregnant US women is in the range of 16% to 29%, and up to 30% of women visiting infertility clinics may be affected by BV. [22] Clinical manifestations include discomfort and pungent odor, a gray, thin, homogenous discharge, but rarely dysuria[medscape.com]
  • Clinical findings Discomfort; thin, grey, pungent (fishy odour) vaginal discharge; occasionally dysuria; vagina or vulva are generally not inflammed.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Typical symptoms of VVC include pruritus, vaginal soreness, dyspareunia, external dysuria, and abnormal vaginal discharge. None of these symptoms is specific for VVC.[web.archive.org]
Foul Smelling Vaginal Discharge
  • Gardnerella is one label used to describe a condition that causes unusual, foul-smelling vaginal discharge in women. It is named after Gardnerella vaginalis, a type of bacteria that can develop inside the vagina causing this condition.[onlinedoctor.lloydspharmacy.com]
  • When symptoms do occur, you may have abnormal and foul-smelling vaginal discharge. The discharge is usually thin and dull gray or white. In some cases, it may also be foamy.[healthline.com]
  • Some symptoms associated with vaginosis in women caused by G. vaginalis may include Gray, foul smelling vaginal discharge (the smell is particularly noticeable after intercourse, because semen is alkaline and reacts with the bacteria, causing the release[microbewiki.kenyon.edu]
Urethral Discharge
  • The presence of urethral discharge has been identified as an important diagnostic clue in the detection of certain sexually transmitted infections in males, 43 but the significance of G vaginalis is still controversial. 31 Specific cultures for G vaginalis[jamanetwork.com]

Treatment

  • Gardnerella Treatment Fortunately gardnerella is easy to treat. Here we will look at some of the common treatments used: Metrodinazole Oral consumption of metrodinazole (Flagyl) takes 7 days to cure the problem.[healthguidance.org]
  • Your partner may also need treatments as they may reinfect you after treatment with medications.[kidspot.com.au]
  • If one partner is infected, diagnostic and treatment are required for both partners. It is necessary to abstain from any sexual interaction until the end of the treatment.[brulanta.com]
  • The low efficacy of BV treatment with metronidazole may be due to the presence of such biofilms.[jmm.microbiologyresearch.org]

Prognosis

  • […] the therapy of choice, which can result in a complete cure Please find comprehensive information on Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis[dovemed.com]
  • Prognosis The outlook is excellent. Bacterial vaginosis can return, but repeat treatment is usually successful. External resources CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN) National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention P.O.[drugs.com]
  • Prognosis Pregnant women with BV often have babies of low birth weight (less than 5.5 pounds) or who are premature Bacteria that cause BV may also cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Prognosis It may resolve without treatment. Up to 70% of patients have a relapse within three months of successful treatment. [ 2 ][patient.info]

Etiology

  • Background and epidemiology: Bacterial vaginosis is a common condition with a poorly understood etiology, natural history and public health burden.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, several investigations conducted using cultivation-independent methods have shown that a significant proportion ( 30%) of healthy women lack appreciable numbers of Lactobacillus species A critical problem in studies of the etiology of BV is the[doi.org]
  • Observations concerning the microbial etiology of acute salpingitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 170 (4) 1008-1014, discussion 1014–1017 84 Jossens MO, Schachter J, Sweet RL.[doi.org]
  • […] in young women Common finding in women with SIL (HPV infection) Uncommon in postmenopausal women, except those with hormonal replacement therapy Risk factors include multiple sexual partners, IUD, prior pregnancy, medication, spermicides and smoking Etiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Observations concerning the microbial etiology of acute salpingitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr; 170 (4):1008–1017. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] Larsson PG, Bergman B, Forsum U, Platz-Christensen JJ, Påhlson C.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract The Gardnerella vaginalis infection of the urogenital tract, an STD, is of clinical importance in females and of epidemiological importance in males.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Amsel R, Totten PA, Spiegel CA, Chen KC et al. (1983) Nonspecific vaginitis: Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. Am J Med 74:14 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 2.[link.springer.com]
  • Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic Associations. — American J. Medicine 74: 14–21. Google Scholar 2.[link.springer.com]
  • Links: aetiology epidemiology pathogenesis clinical features investigation treatment of bacterial vaginosis comparison of characteristics of vaginal discharge (candida (thrush) versus bacterial vaginosis (BV) versus trichomoniasis) NICE - screening for[gpnotebook.co.uk]
  • Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. Am J Med. ‎ Seite 98 - US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1995.[books.google.de]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Ratner, Pathophysiology of Chorioamnionitis, Fetal and Neonatal Physiology, 10.1016/B978-0-323-35214-7.00174-8, (1737-1744.e3), (2017). Pedro Vieira-Baptista, Claudia Marchitelli, Hope K.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • Causes and Preventative Methods While curing gardnerella is of course important – preventing the condition from occurring in the first place – it is even more preferable to be able to prevent it from arising in the first place.[healthguidance.org]
  • Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1995. CDC, DSTDP (Division of STD Prevention). Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 1994. ‎[books.google.de]
  • External resources CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN) National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention P.O.[drugs.com]
  • Finally, a monogamy sexual practice can prevent Bacterial vaginosis as it is more commonly associated with multiple sexual partners. This can also prevent sexually transmitted diseases.[diseasesweb.org]
  • How can I prevent bacterial vaginosis? bacterial vaginosis is not well understood by scientists, and the best ways to prevent it are unknown.[medic8.com]

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