Gasoline poisoning can be either acute, subacute or chronic and can be due to accidental or intentional inhalation of gasoline fumes or ingestion of gasoline. Adverse effects are caused by the hydrocarbons present in this compound and these can affect different organ systems. Children are more vulnerable to toxicity compared to adults. Diagnosis depends on history, findings on the clinical examination and organ-specific tests as gasoline levels cannot be detected in blood.
Gasoline poisoning can lead to different symptoms depending on whether it is ingested, inhaled or is in contact and based on the duration of exposure. The toxic effects are mainly due to the hydrocarbon components in gasoline, although the chemical itself is a mild irritant.
Following sudden exposure to gasoline, patients can present with pneumonitis (if inhaled), and gastrointestinal irritation (if ingested). Lead, if present in gasoline, can cause lead poisoning, in addition, to gasoline poisoning. Hydrocarbons present in gasoline can cross the placenta and are potentially harmful to the fetus . Inhalation of low concentrations results in facial flushing, imbalance, slurring of speech and confusion while higher concentrations can lead to dizziness, headaches, blurring of vision, seizures, coma, unconsciousness and eventually death due to respiratory failure. Children are more susceptible to the effects of gasoline poisoning as they have a relatively higher rate of minute ventilation per kilogram of body weight and often are not evacuated immediately following exposure.
Effects of gasoline toxicity on different organ systems are :
Long-term exposure to gasoline as a fuel has not been associated with any specific health-related complications, however, chronic abuse e.g. sniffing  has been reported to cause changes in mood, increased irritability, drowsiness, confusion, tremors, seizures, visual dysfunction, hallucinations and even sudden death. Although, these adverse effects may be due to adulteration of gasoline with lead or other additives and not due to gasoline itself.
Gasoline has been designated as a possible 2B carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer .
Effects of gasoline on the human immune system were evaluated by White et al  although they could not provide any conclusive results.
It is difficult to detect gasoline poisoning in blood samples. Therefore the clinician has to rely on a detailed history, and physical examination findings to arrive at a diagnosis. In acute and severe cases, blood and urine toxicology, as well as specific laboratory tests, to diagnose organ dysfunction may be needed.
A thorough physical examination is performed recording vital parameters like heart rate, temperature, respiratory rate, and blood pressure. In case, of ingestion or inhalation, the throat is examined and flexible pharyngolaryngoscopy with bronchoscopy  may be required.
In addition, imaging studies like a plain X-ray chest to exclude aspiration pneumonitis, and an electrocardiogram to rule out cardiac arrhythmias are also performed .