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Generalized Motor Seizure


Presentation

  • A series of 6 such patients is presented. All had a history of chronic primary or post-traumatic epilepsy and presented with acute liver failure shortly after a grand mal fit.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At the hearing level, however, presenting an argument for approval based on medical evidence that has been obtained and submitted is exactly what happens.[ssdrc.com]
  • However, the most frequent clinical presentation involves rhythmic twitching and loss of consciousness ( tonic-clonic seizure ).[amboss.com]
  • -Primary Generalized Epilepsies can present with various generalized seizures. A new pattern of generalized seizures in such a case might not necessarily signify worsening of the condition.[epilepsynyc.com]
  • Tonic-clonic seizures present the greatest risk during the last trimester, when the baby’s brain is larger and needs more oxygen. What are the Risks of Epilepsy During Pregnancy? Epilepsy can affect pregnancy in a variety of ways.[americanpregnancy.org]
Epilepsy
  • Besides possible ethnic factors, the relative rarity of interictal EEG abnormalities in Africans with grand mal epilepsy may be related to the larger amount of sunshine in the tropics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Pure grand mal epilepsy (PGME) is a common subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) with an unclear mode of inheritance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract In a controlled clinical investigation based on 14 patients with focal seizures and 3 patients with secondary generalized grand mal epilepsy, all with insufficient response to conventional anti-epileptic treatment, clonazepam (Rivotril(R)) combined[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A case is reported in which a Nucleus 22 channel intracochlear implant was used to treat a deaf Hungarian woman (aged 37 years) with a 34-year history of grand mal (GM) epilepsy maintained on carbamazepine-diazepam combination therapy who had[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Transitions occur from awakening epilepsy to sleep epilepsy or to diffuse epilepsy and from sleep epilepsy to diffuse epilepsy, but not vice versa” ( Janz 1962 ).[medlink.com]
Epilepsy
  • Besides possible ethnic factors, the relative rarity of interictal EEG abnormalities in Africans with grand mal epilepsy may be related to the larger amount of sunshine in the tropics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Pure grand mal epilepsy (PGME) is a common subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) with an unclear mode of inheritance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract In a controlled clinical investigation based on 14 patients with focal seizures and 3 patients with secondary generalized grand mal epilepsy, all with insufficient response to conventional anti-epileptic treatment, clonazepam (Rivotril(R)) combined[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A case is reported in which a Nucleus 22 channel intracochlear implant was used to treat a deaf Hungarian woman (aged 37 years) with a 34-year history of grand mal (GM) epilepsy maintained on carbamazepine-diazepam combination therapy who had[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Transitions occur from awakening epilepsy to sleep epilepsy or to diffuse epilepsy and from sleep epilepsy to diffuse epilepsy, but not vice versa” ( Janz 1962 ).[medlink.com]
Fever
  • Seizures can be caused by strokes , tumors, medications, fevers, infections or withdrawal. They are most often, however, associated with epilepsy .[franciscanhealth.org]
  • But sometimes, this type of seizure can be triggered by other health problems, such as extremely low blood sugar, a high fever or a stroke. Many people who have a grand mal seizure never have another one and don't need treatment.[mayoclinic.org]
  • There are many potential causes of pediatric seizures besides epilepsy, including fever, meningitis, a metabolic imbalance, exposure to a toxin, head injury, or a tumor or other lesion. Sometimes no cause is ever determined.[columbianeurosurgery.org]
  • However, a seizure could also occur because you have a high fever, a head injury, or low blood sugar. Sometimes, people have a seizure as a part of the process of withdrawing from drug or alcohol addiction.[healthline.com]
  • They include gingival hyperplasia, rash, and, in the case of Dilantin, fever and leukopenia. Physical dependence can become a problem in patients taking phenobarbital or primidone, which is largely converted to phenobarbital in the blood stream.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Disability
  • Documentation of Disability The Office of Accessibility Services (OAS) operates under the mandate of federal disability law, which includes the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).[ucmo.edu]
  • Colorado was the best option, as parents of children with similar disabilities confirmed to Kim they were happy with the state’s Medicaid program. But traveling long hours by car or plane was dangerous, and not advised by Abby’s doctors.[endoca.com]
  • […] upfront fixed fares • GrabHitch: Social carpooling; Schedule your ride in advance and get a shared lift • GrabFamily: Family-friendly ride with a child booster seat for your little ones • GrabAssist: Extra assistance ride for seniors or people with disabilities[apps.apple.com]
  • I recently had an assessment for disability and the "healthcare worker" doing the assessment had never heard of the term tonic clonic, i had to literally spell it out for her.[coping-with-epilepsy.com]
Pain
  • Have been on many different pain pills. Find when I smoke high.. grade marijuana the pain is much less, so only 1 maybe 2 pills per day. Will smoking Marijuana have any effect on my seizure activity? I have been smoking daily for about 12 years.[epilepsy.com]
  • ., fumbling, lip smacking, chewing, swallowing) Confusion Anterograde amnesia Aphasia Fatigue, possibly short phase of coma Muscular flaccidity and muscle pain Headache Focal seizures may evolve to generalized convulsive seizure (formerly secondarily[amboss.com]
  • Contributing factors as to why this may occur include: Sleep deprivation Hyperventilation Stress Physical pain Failure/inability of the women to take medications It is important for the mother to get plenty of rest, remain stress free, and take her medications[americanpregnancy.org]
  • The seizures start with rapid breathing, triggered by mental stress, anxiety, or pain. As the person breathes rapidly, they build up carbon dioxide in their body and change their body chemistry.[epilepsy-ohio.org]
Loud Snoring
  • After these series of contractions, there is an extended postical state where the person is unresponsive and commonly sleeping with loud snoring.[en.wikipedia.org]
Fecal Incontinence
  • Muscular flaccidity resulting in urinary or fecal incontinence. Total amnesia of the seizure. Emergency Management Should a patient exhibit a grand mal seizure, the following steps should be taken: PRODROMAL AND PREICTAL PHASE Recognize aura.[dentalcare.com]
Hypotension
  • […] decrease depression diazepam digitalis digoxin dilatation Discuss disease diuretics dopamine dose drug interactions Drug therapy duration of action Enumerate enzyme excretion factors furosemide glaucoma Half Questions heparin Hypertension hypokalemia hypotension[books.google.de]
Tachycardia
  • […] phenytoin physostigmine plasma concentration platelet poisoning Prazosin produce prophylaxis Propranolol reactions receptors release renal respiratory route of administration Short Notes Short Questions stimulation sympathetic sympathomimetics synthesis tachycardia[books.google.de]
Muscle Spasm
  • \ ˈgrän(d)-ˌmäl, ˈgräⁿ-ˌmäl, -ˌmal ; ˈgran(d)-ˌmal \ 1 or grand mal epilepsy : severe epilepsy characterized by seizures in which there is an abrupt loss of consciousness with initially prolonged tonic muscle contractions followed by clonic muscle spasms[merriam-webster.com]
  • […] noun mass noun 1 A serious form of epilepsy with muscle spasms and prolonged loss of consciousness. ‘Epilepsy is called grand mal (major illness) or petit mal also called absence attacks.’[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
  • These intense seizures can be frightening to experience or observe, as extreme muscle spasms may temporarily arrest breathing.[hopkinsmedicine.org]
  • They can make you have muscle spasms, black out, or fall. Seizures aren’t always an either-or thing: Some people have seizures that start as one kind, then become another.[webmd.com]
  • The initial signs of the clonic phase are muscle spasms. The frequency of flexing and relaxation of muscles gradually comes down until jerking stops. Usually, the person would sigh deeply and then start breathing normally.[startstemcells.com]
Suggestibility
  • The highest LOD score for two-point and multi-point linkage analysis are 1.99 (theta 0) at marker D11S4159 and 2.18 between markers D11S1782 and D11S3178, respectively, which reached the level of a suggested positive linkage LOD score (Z / 1.9), under[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Further findings suggested increased coupling between medial parietal-occipital areas (structural core of the cortex) and lateral hemispheric areas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Recent laboratory experiments suggest that soon, stem cell therapy would be a better and safer solution to epilepsy, including Grand mal seizure. Two approaches have been considered. 1.[startstemcells.com]
  • An EEG and other tests may help confirm the diagnosis or suggest a cause. How are tonic-clonic seizures treated? The main way of treating seizures is by taking medicines daily.[epilepsy.com]
  • Minor suggestions from before update: * GPS is usually inaccurate by a short distance * Raising rates for drivers or being able to tip in-app should be added asap. * A standardized picture of the vehicle should appear by the driver picture.[apps.apple.com]
Anger
  • […] that starts in one part of your body – usually your hand or face – and then spreads bit by bit to other parts of your body Having repeated movements such as rocking, pedalling or pelvic thrusting Undressing Running or walking Feelings of fear, anxiety, anger[epilepsy.org.uk]
Seizure
  • Despite its accepted safety, its use has been associated with generalized motor seizures, and several cases of this toxicity have been reported. Risk factors include phenothiazine ingestion, seizure history, and large doses of the contrast material.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Two patients are described who developed acute pulmonary oedema: the first following a grand mal epileptic seizure of idiopathic origin, the second following electric shock therapy (ECT) for depression.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract In a controlled clinical investigation based on 14 patients with focal seizures and 3 patients with secondary generalized grand mal epilepsy, all with insufficient response to conventional anti-epileptic treatment, clonazepam (Rivotril(R)) combined[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The different types of generalized seizures are: absence seizures (formerly known as petit mal) tonic-clonic or convulsive seizures (formerly known as grand mal) atonic seizures (also known as drop attacks) clonic seizures tonic seizures myoclonic seizures[epilepsyontario.org]
  • Isolated seizures and provoked seizures (e.g., drug or alcohol induced) are not epilepsy even though the events are real seizures. There are many types of non-epileptic seizures.[epilepsy-ohio.org]
Seizure
  • Despite its accepted safety, its use has been associated with generalized motor seizures, and several cases of this toxicity have been reported. Risk factors include phenothiazine ingestion, seizure history, and large doses of the contrast material.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Two patients are described who developed acute pulmonary oedema: the first following a grand mal epileptic seizure of idiopathic origin, the second following electric shock therapy (ECT) for depression.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract In a controlled clinical investigation based on 14 patients with focal seizures and 3 patients with secondary generalized grand mal epilepsy, all with insufficient response to conventional anti-epileptic treatment, clonazepam (Rivotril(R)) combined[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The different types of generalized seizures are: absence seizures (formerly known as petit mal) tonic-clonic or convulsive seizures (formerly known as grand mal) atonic seizures (also known as drop attacks) clonic seizures tonic seizures myoclonic seizures[epilepsyontario.org]
  • Isolated seizures and provoked seizures (e.g., drug or alcohol induced) are not epilepsy even though the events are real seizures. There are many types of non-epileptic seizures.[epilepsy-ohio.org]
Tonic-Clonic Seizure
  • What part of the brain do tonic-clonic seizures come from? Tonic-clonic seizures can start in one or both sides of the brain.[epilepsy.com]
  • Wikipedia: Tonic-clonic seizure Tonic-clonic seizures grand mal seizures a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain.[memidex.com]
  • What You Need to Know Tonic-clonic seizures, involve both tonic (stiffening) and clonic (twitching or jerking) phases of muscle activity. Tonic-clonic seizures may start with a simple partial seizure or aura.[hopkinsmedicine.org]
  • Seizure, Disorders, Tonic-Clonic Seizure, Seizure Disorder, Tonic Clonic, Seizure Disorder, Tonic-Clonic, Seizure Disorders, Tonic-Clonic, Tonic Clonic Seizure Disorder, Tonic-Clonic Seizure Disorder, Tonic-Clonic Seizure Disorders, Seizure Syndrome,[fpnotebook.com]
  • The secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure: A videotape analysis. Neurology, 44 , 1403–1407.[link.springer.com]
Tonic-Clonic Seizure
  • What part of the brain do tonic-clonic seizures come from? Tonic-clonic seizures can start in one or both sides of the brain.[epilepsy.com]
  • Wikipedia: Tonic-clonic seizure Tonic-clonic seizures grand mal seizures a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain.[memidex.com]
  • What You Need to Know Tonic-clonic seizures, involve both tonic (stiffening) and clonic (twitching or jerking) phases of muscle activity. Tonic-clonic seizures may start with a simple partial seizure or aura.[hopkinsmedicine.org]
  • Seizure, Disorders, Tonic-Clonic Seizure, Seizure Disorder, Tonic Clonic, Seizure Disorder, Tonic-Clonic, Seizure Disorders, Tonic-Clonic, Tonic Clonic Seizure Disorder, Tonic-Clonic Seizure Disorder, Tonic-Clonic Seizure Disorders, Seizure Syndrome,[fpnotebook.com]
  • The secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure: A videotape analysis. Neurology, 44 , 1403–1407.[link.springer.com]
Aura
  • Ecstatic feelings Headache Increased agitation Insomnia Irritability Lightheadedness Mood changes AURAS Auras are actually a small partial seizure that is often followed by a larger event.[epilepsytalk.com]
  • Q: What is an aura? A: Before the onset of a seizure some people experience a sensation or warning called an “aura.” An aura may occur far enough in advance to give the person time to avoid possible injury.[epilepsy-ohio.org]
  • A patient with a history of seizures may recognize the development of an “aura” consisting of olfactory, visual, gustatory or auditory changes.[dentalcare.com]
  • Aura Stage For some types of seizures, an aura happens before a seizure and may alert a person that a seizure may occur. Auras typically begin seconds before the seizure.[uchospitals.edu]

Workup

Abnormal Spikes
  • Interictal EEG abnormalities (spike and wave discharges, (SW), photoparoxysmal discharges (PPD), and nonspecific changes) were significantly less common in Nigerian patients (incidence 15.7%) compared with British patients (incidence 52.9%) irrespective[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Abstract In a controlled clinical investigation based on 14 patients with focal seizures and 3 patients with secondary generalized grand mal epilepsy, all with insufficient response to conventional anti-epileptic treatment, clonazepam (Rivotril(R)) combined[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatments Correct treatment can help reduce or prevent seizures. In some cases, treatment can help patients to remain free of seizures for the rest of their lives.[cedars-sinai.edu]
  • Some physicians would not start treatment until second or repeated seizures occur. Treatment is usually based on an individual’s symptoms and the accompanying diagnosis.[startstemcells.com]
  • Both of these treatment options offer relief for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Deep brain stimulation is available and FDA-approved for the treatment of medication resistant epilepsy.[uchospitals.edu]
  • Important antiepileptic drugs are lamotrigine ( first-line treatment in focal seizures ), valproate ( first-line treatment in generalized seizures ) and ethosuximide ( first-line treatment in typical absence seizures ).[amboss.com]

Prognosis

  • The neurological prognosis and overall survival of these patients remains poor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Seite 260 - Clinical course and prognosis of temporal lobe epilepsy: a survey of 666 patients. ‎ Seite 11 - EEG changes indicate initial activation of a system of neurons limited to part of one cerebral hemisphere.[books.google.de]
  • ., thiopental, propofol, or midazolam Nonbenzodiazepine therapy (to prevent recurrence) : fosphenytoin or valproate Prognosis Status epilepticus is a life‑threatening event![amboss.com]
  • This includes whatever statements and treatment notes that may have been obtained from your treating physician (a doctor who has a history of treating your condition and is, therefore, qualified to comment as to your condition and prognosis).[ssdrc.com]
  • Prognosis is markedly variable, from excellent in mild cases to severe with continuing GTCS becoming more frequent and less dependent on sleep-waking cycle and precipitating factors.[medlink.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology Epilepsy Although these seizures are referred to as unprovoked, they may be triggered by certain provocative factors![amboss.com]
  • In individual cases, the term Genetic Generalized Epilepsy may be used where the clinician is comfortable with invoking a genetic etiology.[medlink.com]

Epidemiology

  • Definition References: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Epidemiology References: [6] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.[amboss.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Position the patient in a supine position with the feet elevated or roll patient on their side to prevent aspiration. Protect the patient from bodily injury, however do not place objects in the mouth to prevent soft tissue injury.[dentalcare.com]
  • Magnesium and CBD Hemp Oil: Both of these work astonishingly well for preventing and treating seizures.[life-saving-naturalcures-and-naturalremedies.com]
  • Contrary to folk wisdom, it is a bad idea to stick something in the patient's mouth to prevent him or her from swallowing his or her tongue. It may do more harm than good, and people can bite but can't swallow their own tongues.[franciscanhealth.org]
  • In some cases, it may not be possible for you to prevent a seizure if your seizures don’t appear to have a specific trigger. You can take steps in your daily life to help prevent seizures.[healthline.com]
  • This is prevented by inserting something into the patient’s mouth. However, this hurts the patient the more tightly the jaw is closed.[startstemcells.com]

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