Gestational diabetes is defined as any level of hyperglycemia occurring during pregnancy, inclusive of the possibility of onset during pregnancy or the presence of unrecognized glucose intolerance preceding the gestational period.
The recognized risk factors for GDM are higher body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, higher BMI at 28 weeks of gestation, maternal age over 25 years, family history of diabetes mellitus, past history of GDM, multiparity, twin/multiple pregnancy, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and ethnicities such as Asian, Hispanic, or African-American    . Of note, the pre-pregnancy BMI of Asian women have a higher bearing on insulin resistance than that of Caucasian women and they experience insulin resistance at much lower BMIs than do their European counterparts .
Women who suffer from GDM experience a range of adverse effects during pregnancy. This is generally because GDM places them at a higher risk of experiencing pregnancy-related complications such as the need for caesarian/ operative vaginal delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia. These women also experience adverse effects following pregnancy, most notably the increased likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The undesirable effects faced by the child due to maternal GDM are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, increased risk of stillbirth, and increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus and obesity in early life  .
- Blurred Vision
She suffered from severe headache, blurred vision, dizziness, and vomiting. Her baby was delivered by Cesarean section. The brain magnetic resonance images revealed pituitary necrosis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Women may experience blurred vision, fatigue, vaginal infections, increased thirst, frequent urination, and nausea. Blood sugar levels will usually return to normal levels after delivery. [virtua.org]
Signs and symptoms can include: Sugar in urine (revealed in a test done in your doctor’s office) Unusual thirst Frequent urination Fatigue Nausea Frequent vaginal, bladder, and skin infections Blurred vision Who gets gestational diabetes, and why do I [americanpregnancy.org]
Other symptoms may include: Blurred vision Fatigue Frequent infections, including those of the bladder, vagina, and skin Increased thirst Increased urination Gestational diabetes most often starts halfway through the pregnancy. [nlm.nih.gov]
Blurred vision. Pregnancy causes most women to urinate more often and to feel more hungry. So having these symptoms doesn't always mean that a woman has diabetes. [myhealth.alberta.ca]
GDM has a number of guidelines for screening and diagnosing, with striking heterogeneity between the different recommendations. The recommendations from the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) have been endorsed by a number of professional bodies .
The recommendations put forth by IADPSG suggest universal screening for GDM. Pregnant women need to be screened at the first antenatal visit with the standard criteria used in the non-pregnant state i.e. a diagnosis of GDM is made by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl), random plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), or HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) ≥ 6.5%. The aim of screening at this time is to diagnose women with pre-existing diabetes.
If the results at this stage are negative, screening needs to be repeated at 24-28 weeks of gestation with the use of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The following cut off values in the OGTT point towards the diagnosis of GDM: FPG (5.1 mmol/l [92 mg/dl]), one hour plasma glucose (10 mmol/l [180 mg/dl]), and two hour plasma glucose (8.5 mmol/l [153 mg/dl]). These cut off values have been endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Following the diagnosis of GDM, there are other associated tests that need to be performed in each trimester to identify risks to the mother or child. Regular blood glucose testing needs to be done, either with HbA1c testing or capillary blood glucose.
Important tests in the first and second trimester are spot urine protein to creatinine ratio and ultrasonography (US). US in the first trimester is important for dating and establishing viability while a second trimester US is essential for assessing anatomical abnormalities. Furthermore, US remains important in the third trimester to assess fetal growth.
Any specific treatment versus routine antenatal care (subgroups by type of specific treatment) Comparison 2. [doi.org]
However, there has been no sound evidence base to support intensive treatment. The key issue for clinicians and consumers is whether treatment of GDM improves perinatal outcome. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
In spite of poor prognosis, the child was born at the 39th gestation week in a good condition. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Prognosis Women with gestational diabetes tend to have larger babies and increased problems during delivery. Many times a C-Section is needed to avoid further complications during the birthing process. [virtua.org]
[…] thrombasthenia: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) -- rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/2478/glanzmann-thrombasthenia National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) -- rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/glanzmann-thrombasthenia Outlook (Prognosis [ufhealth.org]
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment carry good prognosis. Communities should be counseled to avoid consanguineous marriage and related hazards. [jiaomr.in]
Follow-up and prognosis Gestational diabetes resolves postpartum in more than 90% of women. In general, all insulin and oral hypoglycaemic drugs are ceased immediately postpartum with ongoing blood glucose monitoring until discharge from hospital. [doi.org]
In some patient populations, it may represent an often overlooked etiologic or exacerbating factor in the condition of gestational diabetes. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The clinical role of maternal hyperglycemia below the threshold for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM) in the etiology of macrosomia remains an area of controversy. [doi.org]
Incidence & Etiology Inability to maintain glucose levels required by the body for proper functioning is a growing health problem in the United States; thus it is not surprising that more women are found during pregnancy to be unable to attain the low [web.archive.org]
Author information 1 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. 2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mitchell, Descriptive Epidemiology of Non‐syndromic Complete Atrioventricular Canal Defects, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 26, 6, (515-524), (2012). ZHIXIAN SUI, ROSALIE M. GRIVELL and JODIE M. [doi.org]
Data presented tie in insights with underlying pathophysiologic processes leading to GDM. Screening and diagnostic thresholds are discussed along with management upon diagnosis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Having fetal hyperinsulinism is a risk factor for development of both obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism, and might be implicated in pathophysiology. [doi.org]
Women who don't have diabetes should be advised about their risk and participate in family planning to prevent subsequent pregnancies with undiagnosed hyperglycemia. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
True effectiveness of specific structured exercise programs remains untapped in GDM prevention and treatment and many well-controlled exercise studies are warranted. [doi.org]
Prevention You can lower your chance of getting gestational diabetes by losing extra weight before you get pregnant if you are overweight. Being physically active before and during pregnancy also may help prevent gestational diabetes. [niddk.nih.gov]
- Metzger BE, Lowe LP, Dyer AR, et al. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1991–2002.
- Berkowitz GS, Lapinski RH, Wein R, Lee D. Race/ethnicity and other risk factors for gestational diabetes. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135:965–973.
- Cypryk K, Szymczak W, Czupryniak L, Sobczak M, Lewiński A. Gestational diabetes mellitus - an analysis of risk factors. Endokrynol Pol. 2008;59:393–397.
- Callesen NF, Ringholm L, Stage E, Damm P, Mathiesen ER. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic pregnancy: do twin pregnant women require twice as much insulin as singleton pregnant women? Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1246–1248.
- Retnakaran R, Hanley AJ, Connelly PW, Sermer M, Zinman B. Ethnicity modifies the effect of obesity on insulin resistance in pregnancy: a comparison of Asian, South Asian, and Caucasian women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:93–97.
- World Health Organization. Diagnostic criteria and classification of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy: a World Health Organization Guideline. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103:341–363.
- O’Sullivan JB, Charles D, Mahan CM, Dandrow RV. Gestational diabetes and perinatal mortality rate. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973;116:901–904.
- International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Consensus Panel. Metzger BE, Gabbe SG, Persson B, Buchanan TA, Catalano PA, et al. International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:676–682.