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Giardia Lamblia

Giardia Intestinalis


Presentation

  • Her history included a diarrhoea syndrome 2 months before the present admission, during the summer holidays, for which she was treated with metronidazole.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Axillary Lymphadenopathy
  • Physical examination revealed slight hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, as well as cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Lymphadenopathy
  • Physical examination revealed slight hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, as well as cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intermittent Fever
  • Abstract A 16-year-old Caucasian girl of Albanian origin was admitted to the hospital complaining of intermittent fever (38 degrees C) for a week, nausea, vomiting, and abnormal laboratory findings (elevated serum aminotransferases levels AST/ALT 77/40[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nausea
  • Both assemblages caused similar illness, but assemblage AII was significantly more frequently associated with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, bloating, nausea, and vomiting.[sharinginhealth.ca]
  • Diarrhea is the major symptom of the disease but the clinical manifestations vary; from non-symptomatic infections to severe diarrhea, abdominal cramps, bloating and flatulence often accompanied by nausea and weight loss.[certest.es]
  • Signs of giardia infection include the following: gastroenteritis and diarrhea that produce dark, greasy, foul-smelling stools; bloating; nausea; weight loss; and abdominal cramping.[innvista.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Both assemblages caused similar illness, but assemblage AII was significantly more frequently associated with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, bloating, nausea, and vomiting.[sharinginhealth.ca]
Failure to Thrive
  • In chronic giardiasis, symptoms are recurrent and can lead to failure to thrive, malabsorption and debilitation. return to top Diagnosis Giardiasis is diagnosed by the identification of cysts or trophozoites in the feces, using direct mounts as well as[sharinginhealth.ca]
  • It can also be misdiagnosed as celiac disease or failure to thrive syndrome. Symptoms can last for two to three weeks, with gradual improvement.[innvista.com]
  • Symptoms are usually chronic and intermittent, characterized by diarrhea without blood or mucus, flatulence, abdominal pain, belching, malabsorption, and failure to thrive or lack of weight gain.[aafp.org]
  • In children there may be failure to thrive as a result of the prolonged infection. The epidemiology of Giardiasis has been strongly associated with overseas travelers and wilderness hikers.[dlslab.com]
  • Possible complications Failure to thrive (children) or malabsorption .[patient.info]
Odynophagia
  • We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman presenting with dysphagia, odynophagia, long-lasting low-grade fever, and malabsorption syndrome who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showing esophageal candidiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Melena
  • He reported foamy stools but no blood or melena and had crampy epigastric pain. He denied usage of antibiotics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Responsiveness Decreasing
  • The IgG/M response decreased more gradually but remained significantly higher than presumed unexposed controls at all time points, except for anti-VSP3 at 12 months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Relying on disease-specific surveillance systems for detection of outbreaks is not sufficient when the pathogen is difficult to diagnose, or when it is non-endemic in the area and therefore not part of the routine diagnostic workup.[doi.org]
Hypochlorhydria
  • Hence, we propose that ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria predisposed this patient to the enteric infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tropheryma Whipplei
  • Abstract Whipple's disease is a rare systemic condition resulting from a chronic infection by Tropheryma whipplei. Clinical presentation can be widely heterogeneous, often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Blood samples were collected before treatment, and at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after the infection cleared.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • [ 17 ] Prognosis The prognosis is usually good.[patient.info]
  • What Is the Prognosis for Giardiasis? Cure rates are high with appropriate medication in an otherwise healthy person.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • Abstract Giardia lamblia is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a water-borne infection that is prevalent throughout the world. The need for new therapeutics for the treatment of giardiasis is of paramount importance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology Pathogen : Giardia lamblia ; (also known as Giardia intestinalis or duodenalis ), a protozoan Transmission Waterborne: from drinking of recreational water (e.g., lakes, rivers, ponds, swimming pools) Fecal-oral (e.g., through food handlers, people[amboss.com]
  • Diarrhea in returning Austrian tourists: epidemiology, etiology, and cost analyses. J Travel Med. 1998;5(2):65-72. PMID: 9772320; doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8305.1998.tb00466.x. [ Links ] 23. Choy SH, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MA, et al.[scielo.br]
  • Researchers later showed that Giardia was the causative agent of giardiasis, one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases of protozoon etiology in the world ( 2 ).[pnas.org]

Epidemiology

  • INTRODUCTION: Though giardiasis is an important public health problem in Ghana, several aspects of its epidemiology, particularly the molecular epidemiology has not been investigated adequately.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The pathophysiology may arise from enzyme or active transport deficiencies, synergy with intestinal bacteria or an immunopathological process. Diagnosis is made by microscopic identification of cysts or trophozoites in small bowel samples or faeces.[karger.com]
  • Pathophysiological aspects of enteric infections with the lumen-dwelling protozoan pathogenGiardia lamblia, American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 280, 1, (G1), (2001).[doi.org]
  • References: [2] Pathophysiology Clinical features Infection with Giardia lamblia must be considered as a differential diagnosis for persistent diarrhea . 3–25 days after ingestion of cysts diarrhea consisting of soft, voluminous, frothy , and greasy stools[amboss.com]
  • The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions: -Parasitic Investigation of Stool Specimens Algorithm -Laboratory Testing for Infectious Causes of Diarrhea Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical[mayomedicallaboratories.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention and Control Key Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510642, People's Republic of China. gqli@scau.edu.cn.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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