Gingivostomatitis is the commonest presentation of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in childhood. Gingivostomatitis is charcterized by ulcerative lesions in the gingiva and oral mucosa.
Gingivostomatitis is the commonest clinical presentation of primary HSV-1 infection. Between 13% to 30% of children with primary herpes simplex viral infection present with gingivostomatitis . However, cold sores or herpes labialis may present afterwards.
Symptoms of herpetic gingivostomatitis appear within 7 days of contact with an infected individual, beginning with a clinical prodrome of fever, anorexia, malaise, insomnia, headache, and irritability. The carrier of the virus is often asymptomatic. The prodromal phase lasts about four days. The presence of oropharyngeal lesions make the prodrome more likely suggestive of herpes gingivostomatitis rather than teething which is the usual suspect of most parents with such prodromal symptoms.
The lesions appear initially as erythematous and edematous gingivae laden with small vesicles which eventually rupture. After the rupture of the cluster of vesicles, they turn yellow with a surrounding red halo. The ruptured vesicles then fuse to form large, painful oral and perioral ulcers. These lesions primarily appear in the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and pharynx. In about 30% of cases, the lesions also occur in the lips and perioral areas .
These lesions are often accompanied by halitosis, anorexia, fever, arthralgia, headache, odynophagia, and submandibular/cervical lymphadenopathy . Odynophagia is usually expressed as refusal to drink which often leads to dehydration, the most frequent complication of herpetic gingivostomatitis.
Generally, symptoms may resolve spontaneously within a week, but some cases may take up to three weeks to achieve complete healing. After this infection has resolved, HSV moves to and remains latent in the trigeminal ganglion. Favorable conditions for reactivation such as cold, trauma, stress, immune compromise cause a reactivation and replication of the virus causing a recurrent stomatitis or herpes labialis.
Entire Body System
The virus can be dangerous in newborn babies or in people with weak immune systems. There are two types of HSV: HSV type 1 most commonly causes cold sores. It can also cause genital herpes. [icdlist.com]
Symptoms can include: headaches nausea and vomiting sleepiness weakness on one side of your body memory loss problems with speech and language personality and mood changes muscle weakness double vision or blurred vision loss of appetite seizures Keep [healthline.com]
• Brown blistered his players for their weak defensive game.• The paint may blister in a mild attack or show yellow soapy runs in a severe attack.Origin blister1 (1300-1400) Old French blestre, blostre “swelling on the skin”, from Middle Dutch bluyster [ldoceonline.com]
Your child is weak or sleepy and hard to wake up. Care Agreement You have the right to help plan your care. To help with this plan, you must learn about herpes and how it can be treated. You can then discuss treatment options with your caregivers. [drugs.com]
Sores, ulcers, or blisters in your mouth Irritated gums Sore throat Fever, headache, fatigue Nausea, vomiting, or swollen lymph glands How is GS diagnosed? Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and examine you. [drugs.com]
Another symptom is fatigue. Together with a poor appetite, the patient finds it difficult to move around due to low energy levels. The sores in their mouth also make it difficult for them to brush their teeth on a regular basis. [docdoc.com.sg]
If there is a systemic cause, like an infection, you may also have whole-body symptoms such as fever, pain, or fatigue. The symptoms of a blister may look like other skin conditions. Always see your health care provider for a diagnosis. [hopkinsmedicine.org]
The most common symptoms include the following: Fever in the days leading up to an outbreak (and, in some cases, continuing through the outbreak) Swollen gums Bleeding gums Swollen lymph nodes Headache Fatigue Loss of appetite Sore throat Pain when swallowing [azdentist.com]
Herpes simplex The viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2 cause oral and genital lesions These painful blisters occur alone or in clusters and weep clear yellow fluid and then crust over Signs also include mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, swollen lymph [healthline.com]
As plant pathologists have learned better ways to develop more efficient resistance to the Leucostoma canker pathogens, there have been many really effective cultivars developed that can be used. [en.wikipedia.org]
Página 218 - Diarrhea and Enteric Lesions in Calves by the Oral Inoculation of Pure Cultures of Clostridium sordelli" Veterinary Record, 112:141146, 1983. [books.google.es]
Your child develops an upset stomach, diarrhea, rash, or a headache after taking medicine. You have questions or concerns about your child's condition or care. Care Agreement You have the right to help plan your child's care. [drugs.com]
Bark juice of this herb is used to cure amoebic dysentery, diarrhea and other infections of the digestive system. Kachnar is anti-diabetic herb for the sufferers of diabetes with good hypoglycemic activities. [ayushvedah.com]
World Health Organization (2005) The Treatment of Diarrhea, A manual for physicians and other senior health workers. WHO Press. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. [medcraveonline.com]
Liver, Gall & Pancreas
Accident prevention Baby's appearance Baby's behavior Bathing Choosing a baby sitter Circumcision care Clothing Cord care Crying Cutting nails Diapers Foreskin care Formula feeding General feeding schedules How to burp your baby Immunizations/shots Jaundice [allinahealth.org]
Extract of kachnar leaves improves the liver functioning and gives wonderful results in jaundice. It is used to maintain proper metabolism and functioning of the liver. [ayushvedah.com]
Jaw & Teeth
- Sore Mouth
Case: A 46-year-old male patient came to RSGM FKG UI with a complaint of painful sore mouth, especially on the tongue since 5 days ago with previous history of fever. Patients feel pain around the head and while swallowing. [atlantis-press.com]
When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider if: You have mouth sores and fever or other signs of illness Mouth sores get worse or do not respond to treatment within 3 weeks [health.firstlighthealthsystem.org]
It is usually seen between the ages of 6 months and 6 years The onset of the disease is abrupt and is clinically characterized by HIGH FEVER, HEADACHE, MALAISE, ANOREXIA, IRRITABILITY, BILATERAL SENSATIVE REGIONAL LYMPHADENOPATHY, and SORE MOUTH [de.slideshare.net]
When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if mouth sores are accompanied by fever or other signs of illness, or if mouth sores worsen or do not respond to treatment within 3 weeks. [dxline.info]
- Aphthous Stomatitis
Abstract It is thus apparent from the results of various studies that the conditions called aphthous ulcer (canker sore), herpes labialis, aphthous stomatitis, herpetic stomatitis, or acute infections gingivostomatitis are infections caused by the herpes [ajodo.org]
Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome—occurs in children. Uremic stomatitis—a rare form of stomatitis that occurs with renal failure. Pyostomatitis vegetans Bovine papular stomatitis [en.wikipedia.org]
The major differentials are drug induced mucositis (history of exposure to offending drug), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (exposure to offending drug, target lesions), streptococcal infection, aphthous stomatitis (canker sores) and Diphtheria (involvement [indianpediatrics.net]
stomatitis Herpes gingivostomatitis Herpes labialis Measles (Koplik's spots) Perioral dermatitis Oral thrush Steven Johnson syndrome Streptococcal pharyngitis Tongue diagnoses Vincent's angina Evaluation Clinical diagnosis, based on history and physical [wikem.org]
화농성 구내염, 홍색 음선) recurrent aphthae (재발성 아프타) 작은 궤양, 특히 구강점막에 나타나는 적색, 회색의 소판 점을 말하며 아프타성 구내염을 특징으로 하고 있다. recurrent aphthous stomatitis (재발성 아프타성 구내염) 적색의 테두리로 둘러싸인 작은 희 끄무레한 궤양성 병변을 특징으로 하는 구강점막의 질환으로서 발병시에는 주로 가벼운 국 소적 외상성 손상, 알러지 상태, 내분비수반 상태[월경] 및 [dic.impact.pe.kr]
- Bleeding Gums
Other symptoms may include: Sores and blisters in the throat, or on the tongue, gums, or lips Swollen, red, or bleeding gums Mouth pain that may make your child irritable and keep him from eating or drinking Drooling Bad breath Swollen glands on the sides [hhma.org]
Symptoms of gingivostomatitis may include: tender sores on the gums or insides of cheeks (like canker sores, they are grayish or yellow on the outside and red in the center) bad breath fever swollen, bleeding gums swollen lymph nodes drooling, especially [healthline.com]
- Recurrent Oral Ulceration
Lalla, Recurrent oral ulceration: Etiology, classification, management, and diagnostic algorithm, Periodontology 2000, 80, 1, (49-60), (2019). [doi.org]
- Dental Caries
The levels of plaque, gingivitis, dental caries and periodontitis among smokeless tobacco users were similar to those of most adolescents regardless of tobacco use. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] structure and function -- Cutaneous signs and diagnosis -- Dermatoses resulting from physical factors -- Pruritus and neurocutaneous dermatoses -- Atopic dermatitis, eczema, and noninfectious immunodeficiency disorders -- Contact dermatitis and drug eruptions [worldcat.org]
New vesicles continue to erupt, coalesce, rupture within 24 to 48hours, and produce shallow, painful, irregular erosions or ulcers circumscribed by a red halo. [medcraveonline.com]
Most prevalent in the neonatal period, thrush is seldom seen after the teeth begin to erupt. [jamanetwork.com]
Some differential diagnoses to bear in mind when considering herpetic gingivostomatitis are: Teething in infants: A study mentioned that "primary tooth eruption begins at about the time that infants are losing maternal antibody protection against the [en.wikipedia.org]
Analgesics | Treatment summary associated with acute problems of the oral mucosa (e.g. acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, erythema multiforme) may be relieved by... [evidence.nhs.uk]
The presence of target lesions on the skin is highly indicative of erythema multiforme. [medcraveonline.com]
[…] break down to form ulcers that are usually 1–5 mm and coalesce to form larger ulcers with scalloped borders and marked surrounding erythema. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
열이나고, Irritabilty, 침을 흘리거나, Gingival erythema 를 보인다. 진단은 임상적으로 한다 24-48시간 경과후 Tzanck smear로 진단 할 수 있다. 치료는 대증적으로 하고, Acyclovir 15mg/kg PO 5회/일 PO로 7일간 복용한다. 면역저하자는 전신 감염의 가능성이 있어 입원치료가 필요하다. [ongpidu.tistory.com]
[…] function -- Cutaneous signs and diagnosis -- Dermatoses resulting from physical factors -- Pruritus and neurocutaneous dermatoses -- Atopic dermatitis, eczema, and noninfectious immunodeficiency disorders -- Contact dermatitis and drug eruptions -- Erythema [worldcat.org]
Face, Head & Neck
Poisons Stranger safety Sun safety Water safety Emergencies Bites and stings Bruises, strains, sprains Burns Cuts and scratches Dental injuries Eye injuries Frostbite Head injuries and concussions Head lice Heat illnesses Nosebleeds Poison ivy, oak, sumac Seizures [allinahealth.org]
A neurologic evaluation should be done if a patient has slowly increasing signs of mental dysfunction, new seizures, persistent headaches or evidence that there is pressure inside the skull, such as vomiting or swelling or protrusion of the blind spot [cedars-sinai.edu]
Call 911 Call 911 if any of these occur: Trouble breathing Inability to swallow Extremes drowsiness or trouble waking up Fainting or loss of consciousness Rapid heart rate Seizure Stiff neck When to seek medical advice For a usually healthy child, call [mountnittany.org]
This can cause behavioural changes, drowsiness and seizures. Children with a weakened immune system because of illness or medication have an increased risk of getting herpes simplex mouth infection and encephalitis. [raisingchildren.net.au]
Seizures, personality changes, and unstable moods are common. Treatment can also lead to complications. [cedars-sinai.org]
The diagnosis of gingivostomatitis is largely clinical and is based on physical findings of the characteristic lesions. Laboratory investigations are often not necessary, however, they are indicated in cases where the infection is severe, lesions are not characteristics of HSV, or if the patient is pregnant or immune compromised.
A Tzanck test, which involves staining a superficial scraping taken from the base of a newly erupted vesicle , reveals multinucleated giant cells indicative of HSV or VZV infection. A Tzanck test is done with Wright-giemsa stain. A definitive diagnosis is made with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, serological detection of the antigen, seroconversion of the appropriate serotype, and culture  . Culture of the discharge or smear from the base of a newly ruptured lesion is obtained.
Direct immunofluorescence assay of the oral and gingival smears or scrapings may also assist in the diagnosis of HSV gingivostomatitis.
In cases where the infection recurs frequently, doesn't respond to appropriate antiviral agents, or is recalcitrant to all forms of treatment, immunosuppression should be suspected and the underlying immune disease should be determined and co-managed.
Although, Gingivostomatitis is largely self-limited, antiviral medications may be necessary to expedite resolution of symptoms and reduce the severity of the infection . Oral acyclovir is the antiviral drug of choice for herpetic gingivostomatitis, however an appropriate dosing of the drug is unclear .
Supportive care is often employed along with antiviral therapy and is aimed at alleviating the symptoms and preventing the complications of the infection. An example of supportive care for herpectic gingivostimatitis is application of a lip barrier cream to prevent adhesion of the lips by fusion of adjacent ulcerated lesions.
Analgesics and antipyretics are also necessry in the management of gingivostmatitis. NSAIDs are indicated to relieve the pain and swelling associated with the lesions. Local anaesthetic solutions or mouthwashes containing xylocaine may be necessary for pain control in severe cases.
In cases of superimposed bacterial infection, antibiotics may be necessary and should only be prescribed when such is confirmed.
Gingivostomatitis may cause significant morbidity with severe pain and discomfort. However, it is generally self-limited, resolving within two to three weeks. Treatment with antiviral medications, antibiotics, and home remedies may expedite resolution of symptoms.
Gingivostomatitis is most commonly caused by HSV-1 and less commonly by certain bacteria species including streptococcus and actinomyces. Coxsackie virus is a less common viral cause of gingivostomatitis, which is transmitted via contact with objects contaminated with human feces. Poor oral hygiene is a key risk factor for gingivostomatis.
Gingivostomatitis constitutes about 1% of consultations in general practice. Although, prevalence of HSV-1 seropositivity varies with ethnicity, it may be observed in up to 85% of individuals in early adulthood. Between 20% to 40% of these seropositive individuals may have recurrent cold sores with a frequency ranging from 2 to 6 times every year.
An Amsterdam study noted that besides its variance with ethnicity, HSV-1 seropositivity was more prevalent among older patients and those of low socioeconomic status .
HSV-1 infection occurs worldwide, with humans are the only host of the organism. Transmission is therefore, by human-to-human contact with no intermediate host or vector involved.
HSV-1 as well as HSV-2 are members of the herpesviridae family and alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. It has a number of characteristic properties including : an ability to invade and multiply in the nervous system, ability to become latent in the neuronal ganglia proximal to the primary site of infection, and an ability to become reactivated in the presence favorable conditions.
In HSV infections primarily involving the orofacial region, the trigeminal ganglia is the commonest site of latency of the virus, while latency occurs in the sacral nerve root ganglia (S2 - S5) in genital herpes infection.
Reactivation of latent HSV with subsequent replication is often triggered by fever, trauma, menstruation, cold, psychological stress, and sunlight. Reactivation of the virus causes either an overt or an asymptomatic recurrent infection. However, reactivation is commoner and produces more significant morbidity in immunocompromised patients . Furthermore, in these patients, systemic spread of the infection is more likely. The tendency of HSV-1 infections to establish latency, regular reactivation, and viral shedding in asymptomatic patients is responsible for its endemicity .
HSV-1 is transmitted by contact with infected persons and the infection arises after the virus is introduced through breaks in the skin or into certain susceptible mucosal membranes including the mucosa of the cervix, conjunctiva, and oropharynx. Room temperature and drying are potent cause of inactivation of the virus, therefore, making transmission via formites and air almost impossible.
Good oral hygiene may reduce the risk of occurrence and recurrence of gingivostomatitis. Proper oral hygiene involves daily flossing, dental check-ups once every six months, toothbrushing twice daily, and ensuring mouth pieces such as dentures, or mouth instruments are kept clean before use.
To prevent transmission of the virus, one is advised to avoid touching or kissing the face of an individual infected with the virus. Also make-up tools and sharp objects belonging to an infected person should not be shared.
Proper hand washing is also critical in preventing herpes simplex gingivostomatitis. Hand washing is particularly necessary before and after eating and preparing meals, after changing the babies' diapers, and after using the toilet.
Gingivostomatitis which is also known as primary herpetic gingivostomatitis and orolabial herpes is the commonest presentation of primary HSV-1 infection in childhood. It presents with ulcerative lesions in the lips, gingivae, and oral mucosa.
Gingivostomatitis precedes herpetic labialis, which is commonly called cold sores, both of which are manifestations of primary HSV-1 infection. It is however more severe than cold sores. Primary hepetic gingivostomatitis is the commonest viral oral infection. The infection mainly affects children.
The infection usually manifests with an initial prodrome of low-grade fever, anorexia, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and irritability. These symptoms precede the appearance of erythematous and edematous gingivae laden with clusters of erythematous lesions which eventually rupture forming ulcerated lesions with yellow or gray base surrounded by red haloes. Other associated symptoms of gingivastomatitis include halitosis, painful swallowing with refusal to drink in children, and submandibular lymphadenopathy  . The symptoms usally resolve within approximately three weeks, however, they may persist in those who are immuncompromised.
A notable biological property of the HSV-1 virus is its ability to become latent in the proximal nerve ganglion for many years and become reactivated by certain factors such as trauma, fever, cold, stress, and menstrution, and immunosuppressive states.
Diagnosis of gingivostomatitis is often based on clinical grounds with physical examination of the characteristic oral lesions. However, in immunosupressed patients or pregnant women, and those who present with atypical lesions, further investigations including serology, scrapings of the oral lesions for microscopic analysis and culture, and polymerase chain reaction tests may be necessary.
Treatment of gingivostomatitis is often not necessary because the condition is self-limited, however, treatment with antiviral medications may be necessary especially in immunocompromised patients. However, supportive treatment including analgesics and antipyretics are generally indicated for symptomatic relief.
Maintaining a good oral hygiene is a key factor in reducing the risk of the infection.
Gingivostomatitis is a viral infection of the gums and the inner lining of the mouth. It is a very common infection and it is caused by a virus called human simplex virus type 1(HSV-1). It may occasionally be caused by a bacterial agent. Poor oral hygiene is a common risk factor for this infection.
Gingivostomatitis is most commonly caused by HSV-1 and occasionally by other agents including coxsackie virus, and bacteria. The coxsackie virus is spread by contact with objects contaminated with human feces.
HSV-1 has a tendency to stay latent inside nerve cells for many years without causing any symptoms before being reactivated to cause symptoms. Factors which trigger this reactivation of the virus includes fever, cold, trauma, sunlight, menstration and stress.
HSV-1 is the organism responsible for cold sores or fever blisters. Gingivostomatitis is most commonly seen in children.
Sign & Symptoms
This infection begins with a spectrum of symptoms including bad breath, fever, malaise, excessive crying, headache, loss of apetite, swollen and bleeding gums, difficult and painful swallowing, nausea, vomiting, and drooling in children. These symptoms precede the appearance of ulcers and rashes in the gum and inner part of the mouth, these rashes are red and eventually turn yellow with red haloes surrounding them when they burst. When these rashes Burt, they form ulcers or craters which may fuse to form larger ones.
These symptoms usually appear within a week of contact with an infected person and they usually disappear within three weeks of onset. However, the symptoms may persist and even become resistant to treatment in patients with weakened immune systems.
A diagnosis of gingivostomatitis can be made by the doctor after physical examination of the rashes and ulcers and noting the appearance of the gum. Further laboratory testing are not needed unless the patient is pregnant, the infecton is severe, the rashes do not look similar to what should be, or the patient has a weakened immunity.
Additional tests may include blood tests to check for the virus or antibodies to the virus, culture of the scrapings form the mouth lesions, or staining and microscopic viewing of the scrapings from the ulcers and rashes.
Although, gingivostomatitis usually resolve spontaneously within two to three weeks, medications may be necessary to alleviate the symptoms, prevent complications, and expedite recovery. Generally, an antiviral drug is prescribed, together with drugs which reduce the pain and fever. A mouthwash containing xylocaine, a local anesthetic, is also recommended to reduce the pain of the rashes and ulcers. Mouthwashes are available over-the-counter. Saltwater gargle is also recommended. The is done by adding half teaspoon of salt in 1 cup of water.
To prevent feeding difficulties, spicy, salty, and sour foods should be avoided as these may worsen the pain. Soft foods are also recommended to prevent trauma to the sores and persistence of symptoms.
Good oral hygiene is critical in preventing gingivostomatitis: Daily flossing, brushing of the teeth twice daily, and routine dental checks constitute good oral hygiene. Kissing an infected person or touching the sores with bare hands increase one's risk of gingivostomatitis.
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