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Glaucoma Related Pigment Dispersion Syndrome

Glaucoma Pigment Dispersion


Presentation

  • In severe cases, an efferent pupillary defect may be present.[entokey.com]
  • Presents a more streamlined format to the printed text to help you focus on the clinically actionable information you need everyday.[books.google.com]
  • Disease is likely present when 2 of the above 3 findings are present, particularly if other exam findings consistent with PDS or PG (i.e. elevated IOP, zonular pigment, posterior capsular pigment) are present.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • He has 40 published research papers and numerous scientific presentations to his credit. Email: [email protected] PDF HTML[omicsonline.org]
Unilateral Blindness
  • In a community based study of 113 PDS and PG patients followed for a median of 6 years, 1 patient went unilaterally blind while a second went bilaterally blind. [3] In the same study, 10% of PDS patients progressed to PG at 5 years, while 15% progressed[eyewiki.aao.org]
Heterochromia Iridis
  • Heterochromia iridis-a case study. Explor Anim Med Res 2014;4(2):240–5. White D, Rabago-Smith M. Genotype–phenotype associations and human eye color. J Hum Gen 2011;56:5–7. Bhallil S, Benatyia A, El-Mahjoubi B, El-Abdouni O, Tahri H.[jamc.ayubmed.edu.pk]
Fear
  • P: The reason I’d prefer to address the shedding of pigment is the fear that even once pigment release has abated, the trabecular meshwork has been irreparably damaged, so that even in the absence of further pigment release, there is lifelong dysfunction[willsglaucoma.org]
Anger
  • Other factors which influence eye colour during a person’s lifetime include: Emotions: Intense emotions such as anger can alter the size of the pupil and thus influence colour as well.[mymed.com]

Treatment

  • Another treatment for pigmentary glaucoma is a procedure called a laser iridotomy. A laser is used to make a small hole in the iris, causing the iris to move away from the lens of the eye.[glaucoma.org]
  • This is necessary so that glaucoma treatment can be started before damage to sight occurs since lost vision cannot be restored. The prognosis for preservation of vision is good as long as effective treatment regimens are followed.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • Recent dramatic advances in diagnosis, as well as medical and surgical treatment, mean that you can offer your glaucoma patients more timely and effective interventions.[books.google.com]

Prognosis

  • Diagnosis and Prognosis: The diagnosis can only be made by your ophthalmologist during an eye examination.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • When detected early and treated early, the prognosis for pigmentary glaucoma is excellent. Who is likely to get pigmentary glaucoma? Unlike other types of glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma tends to affect younger people.[tamarawysemd.com]
  • PROGNOSIS 25 to 50% of patients with PDS will progress to Pigmentary Glaucoma (PG) 6 to 8% of patients with PDS & PG will develop retinal detachment 21. THANK YOU![slideshare.net]
  • Prognosis - Pigment-dispersion syndrome Not supplied. Treatment - Pigment-dispersion syndrome Doctors usually treat pigmentary glaucoma with eyedrops such as Betagan, Timoptic, Optipranlol and Xalatan.[checkorphan.org]
  • […] lower energy levels should be used, alpha adrenergic agonists should be administered before and after the laser treatment, and argon laser should be used, as it is less disruptive than a YAG laser in terms of pigment liberation and inflammation. [64] Prognosis[eyewiki.aao.org]

Etiology

  • The exact etiology of this syndrome is still unclear as it affects only a small percentage of the population. Some theories have been postulated by medical experts that could help in the treatment process.[primehealthchannel.com]
  • It plays an etiologic role in open-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, cataract, and retinal vein occlusion and has been associated with an increasing number of systemic disorders including vascular disease, hearing loss, and Alzheimer disease [ 5[molvis.org]
  • […] trauma, 6%-7% at 10 years.(7-8) A recent anecdotal report indicates that glaucoma may occur as late as 23 years after blunt trauma.(9) This variation in reported incidence data may not only reflect time frame differences but also differences in specific etiology[djo.harvard.edu]
  • Etiology The underlying mechanism responsible for PDS and PG is the presence of a concave iris contour which causes rubbing of the posterior iris surface against the anterior lens zonules bundles during physiological pupil movement, leading to disruption[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • In a population with a high prevalence of normal tension glaucoma such as in South Korea[ 54 ], vascular disease etiology may be implicated as contributing to this chronic disease process.[ 55 – 57 ] Therefore, advances in non-invasive techniques for[journals.plos.org]

Epidemiology

  • EPIDEMIOLOGY Diagnosed on second and third decade of life PDS is equally prevalent among men and female, PG is more common among males More common among whites More common on myopic patients Genetic association is under study 10.[slideshare.net]
  • Genetics/Inheritance/Epidemiology A positive family history increases the risk of PDS, supporting the presence of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of PDS and PG.[entokey.com]
  • Diagnosis: Pigmentary dispersion syndrome/pigmentary glaucoma EPIDEMIOLOGY Incidence: Approximately 4.8 per 100,000 (PDS), 1.4 per 100,000 (PG) Predominantly affects Caucasians Age of onset typically before 40 Associated with myopia Male and female sex[webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu]
  • The association of physical activity and diabetic complications in individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study—VII.[journals.plos.org]
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS Surveys of glaucoma practices estimate the prevalence of pigment dispersion syndrome to be in the range of 25,000–220,000 affected individuals in the United States.[medtextfree.wordpress.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Ultrasound biomicroscopic studies are presently revealing new insights into the pathophysiology of PDS. Back CLINICAL FINDINGS A.[glaucoma.net]
  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The Mechanical Abrasion Theory Abiotrophy Theory 4. MECHANICAL ABRASION THEORY proposed by D.G.[slideshare.net]
  • Pathophysiology In eyes with PDS, a concave posterior iris surface mechanically rubs against anteriorly oriented zonular fibers to release iris pigment granules into the anterior chamber.[aao.org]
  • The iris insertion is posterior and the peripheral iris approach is often concave Fig. 16.4 Slit-lamp optical coherence tomography demonstrates iris concavity in a young PDS patient Pathophysiology of Pigment Dispersion Syndrome The underlying mechanism[entokey.com]
  • Pathophysiology of pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Editorial review. Curr Op Ophthalmol 1995; 6 : 96–101 3 Davidson JA, Brubaker RF, Ilstrup DM. Dimensions of the anterior chamber in pigment dispersion syndrome.[nature.com]

Prevention

  • This prevents the lens fibers from scraping the pigment from the iris and clogging the eye’s fluid flow. However, it has limitations and does not always achieve its desired effect.[glaucoma.org]
  • Future studies are needed to determine whether the abnormal iris configuration and consequent liberation of pigment can be prevented. Michael V.[glaucomatoday.com]
  • Prevent and plan for complications in advance by examining over 1,600 illustrations, photos and graphics (1,250 in color) capturing essential diagnostics techniques, imaging methods and surgical approaches.[books.google.com]
  • Furthermore, laser iridotomy prevents the natural relative pupillary block that occurs with age, and this theoretically results in decreased severity of disease in patients with pigmentary glaucoma.[aao.org]

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