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Gliosarcoma

Unspecified Primary Disorder of Muscle


Presentation

  • Gliosarcoma is a rare variant of glioblastoma, and this is the first documented case presenting as a primary neoplasm of the optic nerve.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Three years after treatment completion, the patient again presented with dizziness and headache. Masses at the right temple and in the right side of the neck were found.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present an extreme case of gliosarcoma arising as a discrete fibrous nodule adjacent to a typical glioblastoma. A 65 year-old woman presented with progressive weakness, seizures and right-sided hemiparesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A combination of treatment modalities may extend survival as in the present report; however the prognosis remains poor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Herein, we present a rare case of gliosarcoma arising from oligodendroglioma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant and 1p/19q codeleted. A 36-year-old man presented with a non-enhanced calcified abnormal lesion on the right frontal lobe.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Asymptomatic
  • During the following 20 years, she was clinically asymptomatic until she complained of increasing headache in 1995. Neuroradiological imaging showed a sharply demarcated lesion on MRI at the former operative site, which was operated on again.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After the completion of treatment, 35.3% patients were asymptomatic, 23.5% had symptomatic improvement, while 41.2% deteriorated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At the time of last follow-up 13 patients had expired, 4 had progressive disease and 10 patients were asymptomatic and free of disease. Median PFS and OS of the entire cohort were 15 months and 16.7 months [Figure 1] respectively.[indianjcancer.com]
  • […] listen (AY-sim-toh-MA-tik) Having no signs or symptoms of disease. asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis listen (AY-sim-toh-MA-tik in-FLA-muh-TOR-ee PROS-tuh-TY-tis) Inflammation of the prostate gland where the only symptom is the presence of white blood[cancer.gov]
Wound Infection
  • Postoperative radiation had to be interrupted because of a wound infection necessitating explantation of the infected bone flap and implantation of a titanium mesh.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Rigor
  • PubMed query of term "gliosarcoma" was performed, followed by a rigorous review of cited literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aspiration
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is routinely employed to diagnose a number of primary and secondary malignancies in a variety of clinical settings.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Xanthochromic fluid was aspirated, and the tumor was resected. The histological diagnosis was gliosarcoma based on the presence of gliomatous and sarcomatous components.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Certain types of Aspergillus may cause disease, especially in people who have suppressed immune systems. aspirate Aspirate (pronounced AS-pih-rit) refers to fluid, tissue, or other substance that is withdrawn from a body cavity, cyst, or tumor.[cancer.gov]
Xerostomia
  • He experienced the following treatment-related, reversible toxicities with ANP: fatigue, xerostomia and urinary frequency (grade 1), diarrhea, incontinence and urine color change (grade 2), and grade 4 hypernatremia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Photosensitivity
  • In general, the PDZ showed a promising photosensitive agent in PDT for the use of gliosarcoma. KEYWORDS: Brain cancer; Chlorin; Gliosarcoma; Photodynamic therapy[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • 912444-00-9 11960529 21 Dianhydrogalactitol Investigational Phase 3 23261-20-3 22 Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 23 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable 24 Ether Phase 3 25 Photosensitizing[malacards.org]
  • Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 24 Dihematoporphyrin Ether Phase 3,Phase 1 25 Ether Phase 3 26 Alkylating Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 27 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable 28 Photosensitizing[malacards.org]
  • It is a type of photosensitizing agent. amethopterin listen (A-meh-THOP-teh-rin) A drug used to treat many types of cancer. It is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and severe psoriasis (a type of skin condition).[cancer.gov]
Corneal Opacity
Anisocoria
  • A 55-year-old female presented with a unique case of gliosarcoma with a huge cystic component manifesting as loss of consciousness, left-sided hemiparesis, and anisocoria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Incontinence
  • He experienced the following treatment-related, reversible toxicities with ANP: fatigue, xerostomia and urinary frequency (grade 1), diarrhea, incontinence and urine color change (grade 2), and grade 4 hypernatremia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Focal Neurologic Deficit
  • Clinically, they often result in macrocrania, hydrocephalus, and focal neurologic deficits. Fetal onset may result in dystocia and stillbirth.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pr features: Non-specific including vomiting, headaches, and focal neurological deficits. Predisposing factors: Prior radiation therapy Gliosarcoma has masqueraded as ischemic stroke in at least 3 prior case reports (Mesfin, Preul, Züchner).[ajnr.org]
  • The most common symptoms are seizures, focal neurological deficits, headache, and other symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure. 7 , 8 Treatment includes tumor resection, postoperative radiation therapy, and sometimes chemotherapy. 4 , 8 At[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tonic-Clonic Seizure
  • A 51-year-old right-handed woman initially presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. MRI showed abnormal signal hyperintensity of the right temporal lobe that was thought to be consistent with ischemic stroke.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The subsequent follow-up period of 27 months was uneventful until he developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. MRI showed tumor recurrence in the original site of the tumor. Re-exploration was carried out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Papilledema
  • Neurological examination was unremarkable except for bilateral papilledema. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6-cm right temporal mass with extension into the infratemporal fossa.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] preference for the temporal lobes 8 , although it can affect the frontal, parietal or occipital lobes and corpus callosum less frequently. 17 Its clinical profile may include an intracranial hypertension syndrome such as headache, dizziness, vomiting, papilledema[scielo.org.co]
Altered Mental Status
  • A 57-year-old man presented with altered mental status and was found to have a large right frontal mass.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypesthesia
  • The postoperative course was uneventful except for hypesthesia in the distribution of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. The histopathological diagnosis was consistent with gliosarcoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • A pulmonary workup revealed lung lesions that were biopsied and found to be gliosarcoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • GS shows a predilection for a superficial location and dural invasion and thus may not be considered in the initial workup of parenchymal masses. 8 There were 2 cases of primary GS of the posterior cranial fossa in patients older than 60 years of age[journals.lww.com]

Treatment

  • Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed good treatment response, demonstrated by central necrosis and tumor shrinkage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prior treatment of his LGA included subtotal tumor resection 3 times, standard radiation therapy, and Gamma Knife procedure twice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Three years after completing treatment, the patient again presented with similar symptoms with the addition of a seizure. Test revealed recurrence of the gliosarcoma, and the same treatment was prescribed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The optimal treatment of SGS is not known and strategies based on GBM and sarcoma treatments have been employed with limited success.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The 204 citations yielded were screened for relevancy to gliosarcomas that occur after treatment of previous intracranial neoplasms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Our study adds further evidence to support GSM as a unique clinical entity with a likely worse prognosis than GBM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient was treated with postoperative external radiation therapy and had poor prognosis. To our knowledge this is the second published case of GS with multi-focal presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Primary gliosarcoma is a very rare tumor in children with a poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Primary gliosarcoma (PGS) is a rare neoplasm with a poor prognosis. It is considered as a variant of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and as a grade IV neoplasm.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A combination of treatment modalities may extend survival as in the present report; however the prognosis remains poor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • To gain a comprehensive view of the genomic alterations in GS and to understand the molecular etiology of GS, we applied whole-exome sequencing analyses for 28 GS cases (6 blood-matched fresh-frozen tissues for the discovery set, 22 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of gliosarcoma remains speculative although it is recognized that gliomas can induce sarcomatous transformation in the supporting mesenchymal elements (2) and irradiation of the central nervous system can induce malignant transformation of[path.upmc.edu]
  • Etiology: It is thought that the sarcomatous changes may arise from fibroblasts of the blood vessels. Gross: The glioblastoma part of the tumor forms heterogeneous infiltrative areas with hemorrhage and necrosis.[aboutcancer.com]

Epidemiology

  • Although most gliomas rarely show metastases outside the cerebrum, gliosarcomas have a propensity to do so, most commonly spreading through the blood to the lungs, and also liver and lymph nodes.Gliosarcomas have an epidemiology similar to that of glioblastomas[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Due to its rarity, the pathogenesis, epidemiology and optimal therapy of GS have been based on small retrospective cohort studies, with treatment presently utilizing regimens established for other high-grade gliomas, including combination of resection[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • They share similarities with glioblastomas as far as clinico-epidemiological and prognostic factors are concerned. They are commonly cortically-surfacing lesions occurring mostly in the supratentorial compartment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Because of the natural barrier of the dura mater, that prevents intra or extradural neoplasm dissemination, cases of penetration of the dura and cranium by gliosarcomas without previous surgery or radiation are very rarely reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Awareness of the phenomenon of melanocytic differentiation within primary neuroepithelial and glial neoplasms is important to prevent the misdiagnosis of these tumors such as metastatic melanoma or primary melanocytic neoplasms of the CNS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Scientists are carrying out various researches and tests to find out whether it can be prevented. One can take certain preventive measures to keep the radiation-induced form of the disorder from occurring.[hxbenefit.com]
  • Symptoms - Gliosarcoma * Headache * Vomiting * Unsteadiness * Vision problems * Cognitive problems Causes - Gliosarcoma * Overeating * Regurgitation * Excessive alcohol * Hangover * Pregnancy Prevention - Gliosarcoma Not supplied.[checkorphan.org]

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