Patients suffering from acute glomerular nephritis may initially present with sudden facial edema and puffiness. Their urine may dark and output decreased. Urinary sediment contains red blood cells, red cell casts, white cells and protein .
Regardless of the type of acute glomerulonephritis, the clinical presentation is similar. Symptoms include the following :
- Edema (peripheral or periorbital)
- Dyspnea or shortness of breath with exertion
- Flank pain
- Weight gain
- Abdominal pain
- Sexual dysfunction and loss of libido
- Nephrotic syndrome
Complications of an acute case of glomerular nephritis include  :
- Nephrotic syndrome and sclerosis
- Acute renal failure
- Decreased in glomerular filtration rate
- Pulmonary edema
- Severe proteinuria with ascites
- Malignant hypertension with cardio and/or cerebrovascular damage
- Hypertensive retinopathy
- Hypertensive encephalopathy
- Chronic renal failure
- End-stage renal failure
Post infectious glomerulonephritis usually occurs 1-3 weeks or longer after infection. It is important to identify and treat the causative agent. In these cases there may be a history of recent fever, sore throat, joint pains, hepatitis, travel outside the country, valve replacement, and/or intravenous drug use .
Entire Body System
Amyloidosis Fibrillary glomerulonephritis Fibronectin glomerulopathy Immunotactoid glomerulopathy Back to top [pathologyoutlines.com]
The most common cause of kidney involvement is AA type amyloidosis. Effective ad common use of colchicine decreased amyloidosis frequency when compared to before. [adudspace.adu.edu.tr]
The diagnosis relies on renal biopsy findings of haphazardly arranged fibrils in all glomerular compartments and distinction from other forms of fibrillary glomerulopathies such as renal amyloidosis and immunotactoid glomerulopathy. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] glomerulosclerosis, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, forms of rapidly progressive GN (vasculitis and anti-GBM disease), and systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis as the more common forms; and glomerular damage in other systemic diseases such as diabetes, amyloidosis [bestpractice.bmj.com]
[…] pulmonary edema, hypertensive encephalopathy or crescentic glomerulonephritis; children with obesity may have greater renal injuries ( Clin Nephrol 2009;71:632 ) Children age 6 - 10 : nephritic presentation with abrupt onset of hematuria, oliguria, fever, malaise [pathologyoutlines.com]
Common symptoms include: Fever Abdominal pain General malaise and fatigue Loss of appetite Joint pains or body aches Swelling of ankles and feet, the face, or whole body, due to lack of sufficient protein in the blood Bleeding through the feces or the [news-medical.net]
[…] time and is more likely in patients with persistent rash and abdominal pain.  For further information, refer to Henoch-Schonlein Purpura Wegener granulomatosis should be considered in any patient with nonspecific complaints, such as weight loss, malaise [emedicine.medscape.com]
Fever Headache Malaise Anorexia Nausea and vomiting High blood pressure Pallor due to edema and/or anemia Confusion Lethargy Loss of muscle tissue Enlargement of the liver 20. Hematuria: dark brown or smoky urine Oliguria: [slideshare.net]
19,000 deaths in 2013, down from 24,000 deaths in 1990 worldwide. Signs and symptoms Among the signs and symptoms of acute proliferative glomerulonephritis are the following: Hematuria Oliguria Edema Hypertension Fever (headache, malaise [en.wikipedia.org]
- Ankle Swelling
A previously healthy 35-year-old man complained of recent fatigue and swelling of his feet and ankles. He also noted puffy eyes. [slideshare.net]
Complications of glomerular nephritis include: Permanent kidney damage Kidney failure Pulmonary edema Malignant hypertension Damage to blood vessels, cerebral and cardio Hypertensive retinopathy Hypertensive cerebral damage [symptoma.com]
A common cause of nephrotic syndrome in older children and younger adults; it may be associated with haematuria, hypertension and impaired renal function. [patient.info]
Patients with pulmonary edema from acute glomerulonephritis present in respiratory distress with hypertension. They also may have an altered mental status if they have developed hypertensive encephalopathy. [emedicine.medscape.com]
This reduction leads to hypertrophy and hyperfiltration of the remaining nephrons and to the initiation of intraglomerular hypertension. [slideshare.net]
In severe situations, it can be manifest by life-threatening hypertension and pulmonary edema. Indeed, hypertensive encephalopathy may be the presenting complaint in some children with AGN . [hindawi.com]
- Eye Swelling
The symptoms of this condition are fluid retention with generalized swelling; swelling of the abdomen; swelling of the face or eyes; swelling of the feet, ankles, and arms and legs. [unckidneycenter.org]
[…] or eyes, swelling of the feet, ankles, hands Visible blood in the urine Joint pain Joint stiffness or swelling There is no specific treatment for this disorder. [medlineplus.gov]
- Muscle Cramp
If you do have them, you may have: Acute: Urine that has blood or looks foamy Lower amounts of urine Swelling from fluid buildup Chronic: Fatigue Dry, itchy skin Nausea or vomiting Loss of hunger Muscle cramps at night Swelling from fluid buildup Diagnosis [winchesterhospital.org]
cramps at night Swelling of the face, feet, hands or abdomen Diagnosis & Treatment at UVA Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history and perform a physical exam will be done. [uvahealth.com]
Symptoms of kidney failure include: peeing too much or too little loss of appetite nausea and vomiting weight loss muscle cramps at night tiredness pale skin high blood pressure headaches swelling or puffiness If your child has any of these problems, [kidshealth.org]
They may also have dry, itchy skin and experience muscle cramps at night. Left untreated, the condition can lead to chronic kidney disease. [nyulangone.org]
SLE must be considered in a patient who presents with any of the following symptoms: arthralgias, malar rash, photosensitive rash, pleurisy, or oral and nasal ulcers. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Other features include AKI from inflammation and depending on the aetiology extra renal involvement such as purpuric rash and arthralgia or even alveolar haemorrhage. [youtube.com]
It is characterized clinically by renal manifestations of RPGN (hematuria, hypertension) leading to renal failure within days or weeks, and may be associated with manifestations of systemic vasculitis (arthralgia, fever, seizures, mono neuritis and lung [orpha.net]
Cryoglobulinemia Consider this disease in persons in their fifth and sixth decades of life with either no symptoms or extra-renal symptoms of purpura, arthralgias, leg ulcers, systemic vasculitis, Raynaud’s, or peripheral neuropathy. [clinicaladvisor.com]
However, as a small vessel vasculitis, HSP also has the systemic features of a purpuric rash largely affecting the lower limbs, arthritis or arthralgia, and abdominal pain sometimes in association with rectal bleeding. [pmj.bmj.com]
Symptoms of pauci-immune glomulonephritis include myalgias, hematuria, proteinuria, oligouria or anuria, weight loss, and fever. Most patients have renal impairment at the time of diagnosis. Patients may have other... [link.springer.com]
Symptoms and signs of renal failure, pain, haematuria, systemic symptoms (fever, malaise, myalgia, weight loss). 53. The most important requirement in the diagnosis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) ANCA-associated disease is [slideshare.net]
Face, Head & Neck
- Facial Edema
Signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis include hematuria (tea-colored urine), hypertension, decreased GFR (glomerular filtration rate), low urinary output, facial edema, mild proteinuria etc. [youtube.com]
Patients may present 1-12 weeks after pharyngitis or skin infection with edema (periorbital and facial edema is common), hypertension, dark urine, and/or decreased urine output. [emedicine.medscape.com]
’) The fluid can accumulate in the face (facial edema), in the abdomen (ascites), or in the lower portions of the legs/feet (pedal edema) Corticosteroid therapy may result in side effects such as frequent infections, brittle bones, hormonal imbalance, [dovemed.com]
Glomerulonephritis is suspected initially by its symptoms of hematuria, proteinuria, and facial or pedal edema. Diagnosis is made by the presence of red blood cells in the urine. [symptoma.com]
- Kidney Failure
He presented to the nephrology department with proteinuria and hematuria. The patient also had intermediate uveitis along with proteinuria and hematuria. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
patient may follow up for further workup of hematuria as an outpatient. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Proteinuria and microscopic hematuria can persist for 6 months to 1 year. Recurrent episodes of post infectious glomerulonephritis are unusual. [symptoma.com]
The gross hematuria of AGN is virtually always painless; dysuria accompanying gross hematuria points to acute hemorrhagic cystitis  rather than renal disease. [hindawi.com]
IgA deposits in mesangium, High serum IgA, varied severity Episodic asymptomatic hematuria microscopic hematuria (40%) Bouts of macro hematuria (40%) Nephritic or Nephrotic. Renal failure (10%) Slowly progressive CRF in 1/3 patients. [slideshare.net]
- Dark Urine
If symptoms appear, they can include swelling around the feet, ankles, lower legs, and eyes, reduced urination and dark urine (due to the presence of red blood cells in the urine). [drugs.com]
This is in contrast to another type of glomerulonephritis, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, where the blood-stained or dark urine episode does not occur until about 10 days after the sore throat. [mydr.com.au]
Patients may present 1-12 weeks after pharyngitis or skin infection with edema (periorbital and facial edema is common), hypertension, dark urine, and/or decreased urine output. [emedicine.medscape.com]
- Smoky Urine
urine Oliguria: urine output is < 400 ml/day Edema: starts in the eye lids and face then the lower and upper limbs then becomes generalized; may be migratory Hypertension: usually mild to moderate 21. urinary (haematuria, proteinuria), nephritic [slideshare.net]
[…] or other symptoms of high blood pressure In severe cases, symptoms of kidney failure, including fatigue; seizures; nausea and vomiting; loss of appetite; overall itching; headache; easy bruising; frequent hiccups or bleeding; and impaired vision Increased [healthcommunities.com]
The main things your doctor will look out for are: continuing high blood pressure (hypertension) poor kidney function prolonged loss of protein in the urine (proteinuria) which may not cause obvious symptoms headaches and seizures How can I care for my [kidshealth.org.nz]
If severely elevated blood pressure develops, some people will have headaches (although most people with high blood pressure have no symptoms and most headaches are unrelated to blood pressure). [drugs.com]
The RPLS is clinically characterized by an acute or subacute presentation, with variety symptoms including headache, nauseas, vomiting, confussion, decreased alertness, seizures and abnormalities of visual perception. [scielo.edu.uy]
Abstract A 30-year-old woman presented with lethargy, night sweats, and fever with raised inflammatory markers. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was negative. Abdominopelvic CT was unremarkable. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Symptoms may include: Dark brown-colored urine (from blood and protein) Sore throat Diminished urine output Fatigue Lethargy Increased breathing effort Headache High blood pressure Seizures (may occur as a result of high blood pressure) Rash, especially [chop.edu]
Urinalysis and examination of urine for protein, blood, red blood cells, white blood cells, red blood cell casts, granular casts, and oval fat bodies is essential. The presence of red blood cell casts is diagnostic of glomerulonephritis . The urine is usually dark with a specific gravity greater than 1020  .
Other tests should include the following  :
- Complete blood count
- Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine
- Serum electrolytes, especially serum potassium
- Glomerular filtration rate
- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
- Complement levels (C3, C4, CH50) 
- Streptozyme testing
- 24-hour urine study
Patients with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis low C3 levels are found and C4 levels may be slightly low. Blood and tissue cultures to rule out or identify infectious agents should also be done .
Imaging studies may be required in some patients. These include :
There is no specific treatment for renal disease. Treatment of acute glomerulonephritis is mainly supportive. In post-infection cases the underlying infections must be identified and treated first  . In all other forms of the disease treatment and control of comorbid conditions is needed to slow the progress of kidney dysfunction and prevent cardiovascular injury  .
Supportive treatment is aimed at the control of inflammation, and then to treat hypertension, infection, and underlying conditions (cardiovascular disease, diabetes) . After these interventions monitoring of the progression of kidney status and treatment of the complications is essential . Once the acute disease has progressed to chronic renal disease the goal of treatment is to delay progression to end-stage renal disease and preparation dialysis or renal replacement therapy .
Pharmacologic therapy for glomerular nephritis includes   :
- Antibiotics and antimicrobials
- Loop diuretics in patients with edema
- Anti-hypertensive medications
- Vasodilator drugs
- Glucocorticoids 
- Bicarbonate supplementation may preserve renal function in chronic kidney disease 
- Cytokine-based therapies 
Bed rest may be recommended in the acute phase or until symptoms of inflammation subsides. After this, regular activity should be resumed.
Most cases of infectious glomerulonephritis result in complete recover. The highest mortality rate occurs in the pediatric population and is reported at 0-7% . More than 98% of individuals are asymptomatic after 5 years, with chronic renal failure reported 1-3% of the time . Most patients have spontaneous improvement in a week, with resolution of fluid retention and hypertension. Proteinuria and microscopic hematuria can persist for 6 months to 1 year. Recurrent episodes of post infectious glomerulonephritis are unusual.
Approximately 30% of adult patients and 10% of pediatric patients with any form of glomerulonephritis progress to chronic renal disease . It is the most common cause of chronic renal failure (25%)  .
Long-term prognosis is not necessarily benign in patients who recover. Some patients experience hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency for the rest of their lives .
Prognosis is worse in patients with significant proteinuria, severe hypertension, and elevated creatinine levels . Outcomes vary from complete recovery to complete renal failure. It depends on the overall health of the individual, especially underlying cardiopulmonary, neurologic, and diabetic conditions.
Symptoms include proteinuria, hematuria, reduction in glomerular filtration rate, oliguria, red blood cells and red blood cell casts in the urine . The decreased glomerular filtration rate results in an increased intravascular volume, edema, and, frequently, systemic hypertension . Many patients with glomerulonephritis may have microscopic hematuria without proteinuria .
Glomerulonephritis is defined as either acute or chronic. The acute form is of short duration and usually resolves without sequelae. All forms of acute glomerulonephritis may progress to the chronic form which is characterized by irreversible and progressive glomerular and tubular renal fibrosis  . This ultimately leads to a decreased glomerular filtration rate and an increase in uremic toxins systemically. Eventually chronic kidney disease (CKD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and cardiovascular disease result    . The progression from acute glomerulonephritis to chronic glomerulonephritis depends on the etiology .
Acute glomerulonephritis can be divided into infectious and noninfectious groups . The most common cause of infectious acute glomerulonephritis is an infection by group A, beta-hemolytic streptococcus bacteria. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis develops 1-3 weeks after the infection. The incidence of glomerulonephritis is in individuals with pharyngitis is approximately 5-10% and 25% in those with skin infections .
Determining that an episode of acute infectious glomerulonephritis is due to any other organism first requires the exclusion of streptococci as the precipitating agent  . Complete recovery of renal function occurs in most patients with post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis and other infectious forms. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis may occur after infections by other bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi  . Bacteria include diplococci, other streptococci, staphylococci, and mycobacteria. Viruses include cytomegalovirus, coxsackie virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and hepatitis B virus .
Noninfectious causes of acute glomerulonephritis include the following  :
- Guillain-Barré syndrome
- Irradiation of Wilms tumor
- Diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine
- Serum sickness
Chronic glomerulonephritis is divided into primary renal diseases, systemic diseases, chronic disease, or those of unknown etiology .
Primary renal diseases that can cause glomerulonephritis include the following  :
- Membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis with the expansion and proliferation of mesangial cells
- Immunoglobulin A nephropathy 
- “Pure” mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis
- Idiopathic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Multisystem systemic diseases that can cause glomerulonephritis include the following :
- Vasculitis, like Wegener granulomatosis
- Collagen-vascular diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus
- Hypersensitivity vasculitis
- Polyarteritis nodosa
- Henoch-Schönlein purpura
- Goodpasture syndrome
The National Kidney Foundation defines chronic kidney disease by the following criteria :
- Evidence of kidney damage: proteinuria or hematuria and/or structural abnormalities seen on ultrasound
- Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) less than 60 mL/min for 3 or more months.
Chronic renal disease is classified into 5 stages   :
- Stage 1: Kidney damage with a normal glomerular filtration rate (≥ 90 mL/min).
- Stage 2: Kidney damage with a mild decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (60-90 mL/min).
- Stage 3: Moderately decreased glomerular filtration rate (30-59 mL/min).
- Stage 4: Severe decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (15-29 mL/min).
- Stage 5: Renal failure; glomerular filtration rate <15.
Glomerulonephritis accounts for 10 to 15% of renal disease . The incidence of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis has fallen over the past few decades due to better diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal infections. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis is most common in children but may occur at any age. Only 10% occur in patients older than 40 years of age .
Other forms of acute glomerulonephritis may occur at any age, including infancy . Acute glomerulonephritis affects males more frequently than females (2:1 male-to-female ratio) . Incidence of glomerulonephritis does not change due to race or socioeconomic factors  .
Chronic glomerulonephritis is the third leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States and accounts for 10% of patients on dialysis . In some Asian countries, chronic glomerulonephritis accounts for 28 to 40% of patients on dialysis . Diabetic nephropathy is found in approximately 40% of patients on dialysis .
The exact triggers for most forms of glomerulonephritis are unknown, except for post streptococcal glomerulonephritis whose trigger is a streptococcal infection.
Damage and complications in acute glomerulonephritis are the result of glomerular inflammation   . The kidney is especially vulnerable to inflammatory injury . Cytokine production by mesegial cells occurs in response to injury to renal tissue stimulating the inflammatory process  . Glomerular basement membranes and capillary walls thicken .
The nephrotic syndrome refers to a group of symptoms that occur with glomerular inflammation and includes edema, proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, and hyperlipidemia. Inflammation surrounding the glomerulus increases its permeability by the glomerular endothelium to proteins  . When the liver is unable to compensate for the excreted proteins, serum protein levels, particular albumin and globulin, are decreased. With hypo-proteinemia there is a decreased circulating osmotic pressure resulting in fluid moving into the tissue. The body secretes aldosterone in response to the decrease blood volume and the retention of sodium and water .
The other complications of nephritic syndrome include hematuria, oliguria, and hypertension as a result of inflammation of the glomerulus and capillaries of the kidneys . Renal filtration and circulation are altered . Decreased renal profusion results in decreased urine production. Increased circulating toxins, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system occur resulting in hypertension .
Metabolic acidosis (MA), low plasma bicarbonate levels, is common in late stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) with glomerular filtration rate below 30 ml/min. This may cause stunted growth in children, loss of bone and muscle mass, negative nitrogen balance, and possible acceleration of progression of renal failure .
The reduction in the glomerular filtration rate results in the following  :
- Decreased production of erythropoietin and anemia.
- Decreased production of vitamin D , hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and loss of bone density.
- Reduction in excretion of acids, potassium, salts, and water, resulting in acidosis, hyperkalemia, hypertension, and edema.
- Platelet dysfunction and increased bleeding.
All organ systems are affected by the accumulation of uremic toxins. These toxins include blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, phenols, and guanidines .
Hypertension itself can cause damage in the glomeruli and tubules of the kidney . More than half the patients with malignant hypertension have an underlying renal cause .
Most glomerular diseases due to infection involve an antigen-antibody reaction in the circulation and glomerulus  . Immune complements are part of the body’s immune system aiding in the body’s defense against microbial infection . When these regulatory mechanisms are not functional, complements may attack host tissues such as renal basement membrane proteins . The immune complexes activate white blood cell production and leukocytes and platelets accumulate in the glomerulus  . The result is complement-mediated inflammatory injury to the kidneys .
Prevention of acute glomerulonephritis is not generally possible because the triggering factors are often unknown. However, the prevention of infections, especially beta hemolytic streptococcal infections, and their early treatment can be helpful in preventing the disease.
Glomerulonephritis refers to a group of renal diseases caused by inflammation of glomerular tissue  . It results in damage to the basement membrane and capillary endothelium causing abnormal renal filtration, altered blood flow, and vascular obstruction within the kidney. Glomerulonephritis is one of the most common causes of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease worldwide  .
Presenting symptoms of glomerulonephritis depend on the specific etiology and include back pain, hematuria, proteinuria and eventually oliguria or anuria . Glomerulonephritis may be accompanied by hypertension, edema, azotemia, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and sodium and water retention  .
Glomerulonephritis can be due to primary renal disease or systemic disease. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is the most common form of the acute form of the disease .
Treatment for glomerulonephritis is primarily supportive. There is no specific treatment for this renal disease. Any underlying infections or chronic diseases must be treated first .
What is glomerulonephritis?
Glomerulonephritis is a disorder of the kidney resulting from inflammation of the glomerulus, the cluster of small blood vessels, responsible for the filtration function of this organ. The inflammation may be the result of a variety of factors such as infections, injury, and systemic inflammatory diseases.
What are the symptoms?
The symptoms of glomerulonephritis include:
- Hematuria (blood in the urine)
- Proteinuria (protein in the urine)
- Decreased or no urine output
- Edema or swelling of feet and legs or around the eyes
- New onset high blood pressure
- Shortness of breath with activity
- Pain in kidney area, on side between hip and rib cage
- Weight gain
- Loss of appetite
What causes glomerulonephritis?
The causes of glomerulonephritis are often not known, however, anything that causes inflammation within the kidney may cause this disorder. They can be divided into infectious and non-infectious triggers. The most common cause of glomerulonephritis has been the body’s response to infection with beta-hemolytic streptococci. The incidence of this infection and its complication has been reduced with more aggressive detection and treatment of the disease. Other bacterial, viral, and fungal infections may trigger glomerulonephritis. Non-infectious triggers of glomerulonephritis include trauma to the kidney, chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes), and systemic inflammatory diseases (lupus, vasculitis).
Who gets glomerulonephritis?
Anyone, at any age can get glomerulonephritis. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis occurs more often in children. The form due to chronic disease is most common in older adults. The disorder occurs almost twice as often in men as in women.
How is it diagnosed?
Glomerulonephritis is suspected initially by its symptoms of hematuria, proteinuria, and facial or pedal edema. Diagnosis is made by the presence of red blood cells in the urine. Determination of the cause may be made by further tests such as testing for antibodies to streptococci bacteria and a work-up for systemic inflammatory diseases and chronic disease.
The progress of the disease may be followed by monitoring kidney function and the extent of hypertension.
How is glomerulonephritis treated?
There is no specific treatment for glomerulonephritis. Treatment is primarily supportive to prevent kidney damage and the complications of the disorder. Supportive treatments include:
- Monitoring and control of hypertension
- Treatment of underlying infections, systemic and chronic conditions
- Anti-inflammatory medications
- Monitoring of kidney function
What are the complications?
Complications of glomerular nephritis include:
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