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Glue Sniffing

Glue Sniffing (inhalant Abuse)


Presentation

  • The habit of glue sniffing is now widespread amongst Australian adolescents and this factor should be considered when any young person presents with a peripheral neuropathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Toluene, a neurotoxic organic solvent, is present in glues. Being highly lipophilic, it can easily enter and is retained within the lipid-rich nervous system after being inhaled.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Although industrial exposure to n-hexane is known to cause neuropathy, it is less well recognized that inhalation of n-hexane present in the vapors of some commercial contact cements is also neurotoxic to peripheral nerves.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case of cerebral depression due to glue-sniffing in a 4-year-old child is presented. This practice, which is confined mainly to older children and teenagers who are socially or emotionally deprived, can have fatal complications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Phillip also went on to reveal, as he got stuck in to making the pin-cushions, that he ‘turned down’ the chance to present Blue Peter many years ago.[metro.co.uk]
Gastric Lavage
  • Gastric lavage (“stomach pumping”) for patients who have ingested toluene-containing substances. Irrigation (“washing out”) of the skin at points of contact with toluene-containing substances.[healthhype.com]
Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
  • A 16-year-old girl developed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and renal failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Persistent Cough
  • Some of the side effects of glue sniffing include: Damage to the nasal passages Damage to lungs and trachea Persistent cough or wheezing, even coughing up of blood Nausea and vomiting Brain Damage Kidney Failure Depression Lack of school and social participation[selectown.com]
Nausea
  • Background From the Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse I learned the following: Initial effects [of various inhalants] include nausea [...], and a loss of appetite.[biology.stackexchange.com]
  • Background From the Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse I learned the following: Initial effects [of various inhalants] include nausea [...], and a loss of appetite .[biology.stackexchange.com]
  • Some of the side effects of glue sniffing include: Damage to the nasal passages Damage to lungs and trachea Persistent cough or wheezing, even coughing up of blood Nausea and vomiting Brain Damage Kidney Failure Depression Lack of school and social participation[selectown.com]
  • Here are other signs the AAP says to look for: A chemical smell, paint, or stains on clothing or the child's body Spots or sores around the mouth A drunk, dazed, or glassy-eyed look Nausea, loss of appetite Anxiety, excitability, irritability Watch Out[life.familyeducation.com]
Cyanosis
  • Generalized symptoms that may be noticeable to others include : Low blood pressure Sweetish body odor Rapid breathing Rapid heart rate Paleness (pallor) or even a bluish tinge of the skin (cyanosis) More organ and system specific signs of toluene exposure[healthhype.com]
Fracture
  • The victim was attacked by the other two teenagers — a Sudanese and a Yemeni — both aged 16, and he sustained a fracture in his nose. He was left on the road in a bad condition after which witnesses called the police.[gulfnews.com]
Petechiae
  • At autopsy, conjunctival and visceral congestion were found with pulmonary edema and petechiae over visceral pericardium. The viscera were analyzed, and the presence of toluene in his liver and blood was reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Psychiatric Symptoms
  • Long-term effects of regular use, in terms of the psychiatric symptoms and cognitive function, have rarely been reported, however.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Self-Mutilation
  • Our results suggest that long-term abuse of these adhesive products is often associated with violent behavior and/or self-mutilation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Self Mutilation
  • Our results suggest that long-term abuse of these adhesive products is often associated with violent behavior and/or self-mutilation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Oliguria
  • The high urinary spot sodium during the oliguric phase and the total renal functional recovery after a period of oliguria followed by polyuria favoured a diagnosis of acute toxic tubular necrosis causing acute renal failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Polyuria
  • The high urinary spot sodium during the oliguric phase and the total renal functional recovery after a period of oliguria followed by polyuria favoured a diagnosis of acute toxic tubular necrosis causing acute renal failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Headache
  • Side effects include depression, hallucinations, headaches and muscle weakness. Long term glue sniffing causes serious heart, lung, liver and kidney damage, and often causes heart failure or brain damage which leads to death.[rehab-recovery.co.uk]
  • Acute Exposure With acute unintentional exposure from toluene-containing household products, symptoms may include dizziness, rapid breathing, shortness of breath, headaches, hallucinations, seizures and even unconsciousness.[healthhype.com]
  • Drug Education: The symptoms of volatile solvent abuse In the short term, inhalers may experience slurred speech, headaches, vomiting, wheezing, loss of motor co-ordination and hallucinations.[drug-aware.com]
Confusion
  • […] toluene, an organic solvent Epidemiology : ratio is 5:1–UK, peak abuse 13–15; solvents implicated include toluene, trichloroethylene, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene; toluene vapors causes irritation of mucosae, lacrimation, arrhythmias, N&V, mental confusion[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • All three looked angry and confused. An older woman sitting near them began, in a strict motherly voice, reprimanding the adults for allowing a child to sniff glue.[strausscenter.org]
  • […] noticeable to others include : Low blood pressure Sweetish body odor Rapid breathing Rapid heart rate Paleness (pallor) or even a bluish tinge of the skin (cyanosis) More organ and system specific signs of toluene exposure includes : Headaches Dizziness Confusion[healthhype.com]
  • Inhalants can affect the mind, causing: • Intoxication, over excitement • Confusion, dizziness, disorientation, drowsiness • Slurred speech, impaired judgement, • Changed perception, of time, space, colour, shape, size, feelings of being “spaced out”[crime.co.nz]
Slurred Speech
  • Abnormal Glue Aroma Difficulty Concentrating Slurred Speech Lightheadedness Hallucinations Delusions Inhibitions Are Impeded Inability to Control Actions Short Term Negative Effects of Glue Sniffing Inability to Coordinate Hostility, Irritability Compromised[harborvillageflorida.com]
  • Drug Education: The symptoms of volatile solvent abuse In the short term, inhalers may experience slurred speech, headaches, vomiting, wheezing, loss of motor co-ordination and hallucinations.[drug-aware.com]
  • Side effects: Solvent abuse can result in a dazed appearance, unsteadiness, slurred speech and unpredictable behaviour. There is a real risk of vomiting, choking and possibly unconsciousness.[urban75.com]
  • […] on breath Spots or sores in or around mouth Rhinorrhea Injected sclera Nystagmus Diplopia Stained fingernails Dazed appearance Dizziness or unsteady gait Slurred speech Forgetfulness or difficulty concentrating Anorexia or nausea Irritability or excitability[aafp.org]
Ataxia
  • "The signs and symptoms include incoordination, restlessness, excitement, confusion, disorientation, ataxia, delirium, and, finally, coma that may last for a few hours to several days."[druglibrary.org]
  • Chronic CNS sequelae, termed chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy (CSE), include neuropsychosis and cerebral and cerebellar degeneration with the following [3] : Ataxia Seizures Choreoathetosis Optic and peripheral neuropathies Decreased cognitive ability[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] fibrosis Sudden sniffing death syndrome Dermatologic effects Burns Contact dermatitis Perioral eczema Gastrointestinal effects Hepatotoxicity Nausea or vomiting Hematologic effects Aplastic anemia Bone marrow suppression Leukemia Neurologic effects Ataxia[aafp.org]
Learning Difficulties
  • ‘You may be lucky and good looking, but boy are y'all stupider than a lobotomised rock with learning difficulties and a penchant for glue-sniffing.’[oxforddictionaries.com]
  • In children this is largely seen as learning difficulties. References :[healthhype.com]

Treatment

  • Many cases of huffing result in sniffing gasoline addiction treatment and acetone and solvents addiction treatment.[harborvillageflorida.com]
  • Many cases of huffing result in sniffing gasoline addiction treatment and acetone and solvents addiction treatment .[harborvillageflorida.com]
  • After treatment by repeated plasmapheresis and drug immunosuppression autoantibodies disappeared from serum but renal function was not influenced. Renal damage is a potential hazard for glue sniffing adolescents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Sociodemographic, drug-taking history and psychological test data were collected from 133 male heroin addicts in treatment programs. Those addicts who had ever sniffed glue (26.4%) were characterized by a unique orientation toward death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our glue sniffing addiction treatment assistance gives you: A free help and evaluation service to help you choose Guidance on the best treatment options for your circumstances Assistance in picking out the most cost-effective options Information on quality[rehab-recovery.co.uk]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Patients with toluene toxicity have a good prognosis if they receive appropriate counseling and follow-up and are compliant with recommendations. The prognosis is poor in patients who continue to abuse toluene.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • In women with occupational exposure to toluene in the year of or the year before giving birth to a boy, the odds ratio for the child developing a testicular germ cell tumor was 1.67 (95% confidence index, 1.02-2.73). [7] Etiology Inhalation of airborne[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Knowledge of the epidemiology, toxicology, and medical complications associated with glue sniffing is essential in obtaining an accurate history of substance abuse and in clinically managing these patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] substance abuse, more often practiced by young adolescents, in which model glue is placed in a paper or plastic bag and deeply sniffed to obtain the maximum desired effect–a combination of euphoria and CNS depression caused by toluene, an organic solvent Epidemiology[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • There are epidemiological reports indicating that chronic exposure to abuse solvents can produce loss of appetite [ 5 ]; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. It’s sad that kids would come to that.[esciencecentral.org]
  • Retrieved 2 December 2010. a b c d e "Epidemiology of Inhalant Abuse: An International Perspective" (PDF), National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIDA Research Monograph 148, 1995 Abuse, National Institute on Drug. "Inhalants".[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Toluene is highly lipophilic, so it readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, which accounts for its primary effects on the central nervous system (CNS).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Other sequelae include muscle weakness, nasal ulcerations, recurrent epistaxis, chronic rhinitis, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, GI symptoms, and peripheral neuropathies (see Pathophysiology).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. a b "Inhalants: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". 5 May 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017 – via eMedicine. a b c d Schaffer, Amanda (8 September 2004). "Vaporize Me". Slate.[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Once an individual is identified as having Glue Sniffing Addiction then prompt treatment is necessary to prevent any long term complications.[epainassist.com]
  • ASCF’s Craig Burrows wants glue to be treated like raw alcohol: the law requires menthol to be added to it to prevent abuse of a cheap, neat alcoholic drink.[streetchildunited.org]
  • According to the VSA Prevention Organisation, Solve It, the youngest person to die from VSA was just seven years old, and the oldest was 80 years old.[drug-aware.com]
  • It was clear that a confrontation would occur if nothing preventative was done. When the train stopped at the next station, one woman went to the door and yelled for security.[strausscenter.org]
  • "Having an industry-wide sponsored scheme from festivals, clubs, bars and others to prevent harm and underwrite a charity to visit venues, events and festivals to help prevent fatalities is a smart move."[vice.com]

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