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Gonococcal Pharyngitis

Gonococcal pharyngitis is a mild and localized type of infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a gram-negative bacterial pathogen. Many patients are asymptomatic, and receptive oral sex is the predominant route of bacterial acquisition. The diagnosis can rarely be made based on clinical criteria, which is why a thorough patient history and appropriate microbiological studies are necessary.


Presentation

Gonorrhea, after chlamydia infection, is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) worldwide, and various clinical presentations are described in the literature [1] [2] [3] [4]. One of them is gonococcal pharyngitis, developing after transmission of bacteria through receptive oral intercourse, more commonly during fellatio than cunnilingus [2] [3] [5]. It is seen in approximately 3-7% of heterosexual males and in 10-25% of heterosexual women and men who are having sex with men (MSM) who already suffer from gonorrhea, and the clinical course is asymptomatic in up to 90% of cases [1] [2] [3] [4]. Conversely, signs of acute pharyngitis or tonsillitis (fever, erythema of the throat and cervical lymphadenopathy) developing 3-4 days after acquisition of bacteria are encountered in symptomatic cases [1] [2]. Many patients simultaneously suffer from a genital gonorrhea infection, thus localized genital symptoms apart from pharyngeal complaints (if they appear) are often present [2] [4]. Although spontaneous resolution is seen in virtually all individuals, the diagnosis is not made in up to 26% of adolescent women, which is why many studies have advocated screening for gonococcal pharyngitis in patients who already exhibit some other type of infection [2] [4].

Prostitute
  • It is especially common in the tropics, where the prevalence is high in prostitutes, who transmit it to migrant male workers.[histopathology-india.net]
Hunting
  • In most cases, you cannot prevent illness, germs and other microscopic beasties that have no problem hunting you down or hopping from person to person at a cocktail party. However, this is one sore throat that you absolutely can avoid.[healtharticles101.com]
Sneezing
  • Sore throat and sneezing occur early in the course of the infection and usually Nasal congestion sinus pressure ear pressure are common symptoms and since many contain unnecessary medications that cause unwanted side-effects.[pareja-ideal.eu]
Dry Cough
  • Pareja-Ideal Aja Tonsilremoval Filed Under: pareja-ideal tonsilremoval But a dry Treating Dry Cough While Pregnant:.[pareja-ideal.eu]
Toothache
  • Here’s what you need to know about a white tongue black spots and A rosy tongue can sometimes go hand-in-hand with a sore throat. 1) The relief of headache toothache migraine neuralgia sore throat dysmenorrhoea.[pareja-ideal.eu]
Chest Pain
  • You’ll find clear guidance on exactly what to consider and how to proceed when faced with a host of common symptoms such as cough, fever, headache, chest pain, gait disturbances, and many more.[books.google.com]
  • Although chest pain and pressure are the characteristic symptoms women are. Sore Throat During Pregnancy – What could be causing your sore throat during and Women’s Health at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University.[pareja-ideal.eu]
Palpitations
  • When a virus such as Epstein-Barr is active in the body it often gives off damaging Sore throat canker sores heart palpitations stagnant liver sluggish liver cancer chronic UTIs lipomas allergies hot spots teeth issues bad eath.[pareja-ideal.eu]
Heart Disease
  • Rexrode's research examines risk factors for heart disease and stroke. She has a particular interest in the role of obesity and hormonal factors, as well as understanding sex differences.[books.google.com]
Behavior Disorder
  • Covers new approaches to diagnostic imaging and genetic testing, new diagnostic guidelines, BRUE (brief resolved unexplained event), stroke in children, behavior disorders, syncope, recurrent fever syndromes, and much more.[books.google.com]
Hunger
  • Well Photo Credit Illustration by Celia Jacobs Outrunning Hunger Intense exercise may change the way certain neurons influence our appetite and metabolism.[nytimes.com]
Meningism
  • A54.41 Gonococcal spondylopathy A54.42 Gonococcal arthritis A54.43 Gonococcal osteomyelitis A54.49 Gonococcal infection of other musculoskeletal tissue A54.6 Gonococcal infection of anus and rectum A54.8 Other gonococcal infections A54.81 Gonococcal meningitis[healthprovidersdata.com]
  • […] spondylopathy A54.42 Gonococcal arthritis A54.43 Gonococcal osteomyelitis A54.49 Gonococcal infection of other musculoskeletal tissue A54.5 Gonococcal pharyngitis A54.6 Gonococcal infection of anus and rectum A54.8 Other gonococcal infections A54.81 Gonococcal meningitis[icd10data.com]
  • For Chest muscle pulls spasms and uised ribs: rest.Neck pain along with a fever may indicate a more serious situation such as meningitis.[pareja-ideal.eu]
  • […] or endocarditis (rarely) Meningitis or endocarditis (rarely) Prostatitis (very rarely) See STI Atlas for images.[sti.guidelines.org.au]
  • Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery Proteus mirabilis / Proteus vulgaris Yersinia pestis Plague / Bubonic plague Yersinia enterocolitica Yersiniosis Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Far East scarlet-like fever Pasteurellales Haemophilus : H. influenzae Haemophilus meningitis[en.wikipedia.org]

Workup

The diagnosis of a gonococcal pharyngitis may be difficult to make, as signs and symptoms are frequently absent. For this reason, physicians must be meticulous when examining patients with a possible diagnosis of an STD. Firstly, a detailed history should be obtained, with an emphasis on sexual activity and "risky" exposure, but also if any other symptoms (for example, genital or systemic signs of infection) are present. The importance of a properly obtained patient history lies in the fact that findings from physical examination are almost always normal, or point to a non-specific pharyngitis comprised of cervical lymphadenopathy and erythema. Thus, if adequate clinical suspicion exists, microbiological investigations should be carried out. In the setting of gonococcal pharyngitis, gram staining of the pharyngeal swab is one of the most widely used methods to detect N. gonorrhea, and the test is advised in all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals, particularly men who are having sex with men (MSM) [3] [5] [6]. Also, cultivation of swab samples has been regarded as a potential diagnostic method [3] [5] [6]. However, the asymptomatic nature of gonocococal pharyngitis and frequent coinfection of other organs and tissues has disputed the role of routine testing in clinical practice [3]. Nevertheless, all patients in whom symptoms of pharyngitis develops shortly after receptive oral sex should undergo testing for gonococcal pharyngitis, primarily because it is an important source of further spread.

Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
  • Gonococcal pharyngitis is a mild and localized type of infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a gram-negative bacterial pathogen. Many patients are asymptomatic, and receptive oral sex is the predominant route of bacterial acquisition.[symptoma.com]
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In: Cohen J, Powderly WG, Berkley SF, Calandra T, Clumeck N, Finch RG, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA; Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2005: chap 209.[lutheranhealthcare.org]
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae may disseminate from mucosal surfaces via the bloodstream and produce arthriti... FIGURE 2-10.[5minuteconsult.com]
  • The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879. Definition (CSP) acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract; the etiologic agent is Neisseria gonorrhoeae.[fpnotebook.com]
Positive Throat Culture
  • throat culture for GABHS in a population of adults and children. 26 [Evidence level B, observational study] The findings were tonsillar exudates, anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, absence of cough, and history of fever higher than 38 C (100.4 F).[aafp.org]

Treatment

  • In the absence of timely treatment the patient complications can occur. In addition to the primary treatment, the patient is required to comply with regulations regarding the supply. All food must undergo thorough heat treatment.[respiratory.vsebolezni.com]
  • Update to CDC's sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006: fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2007;56:332-336. Handsfield HH, Sparling PF. Neisseria gonorrhoeae.[lutheranhealthcare.org]
  • A book dealing with current trends in the diagnosis and treatment of sexual diseases can, by nature of the task, be neither encyclopedic nor all-encompassing.[books.google.com]
  • Otherwise, GBS is the most frequent factor, and the treatment starts with empiric antibiotic unless mononucleosis is suspected This thread is closed, so you cannot post a reply.[prep4usmle.com]
  • She is co-editor of Women and Health, a comprehensive reference textbook for researchers, teaching faculty, and clinicians on the role of gender in understanding disease occurrence, diagnosis, treatment, and priority-setting in health care. Dr.[books.google.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis If gonorrhea infections are diagnosed and treated quickly and correctly, recovery usually is complete unless pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) develops. PID is more likely to develop if treatment is delayed.[womenshealthmag.com]

Etiology

  • Her research has focused on the hormonal etiologies of reproductive cancers and the role of maternal, gestational, neonatal and early life factors in breast cancer risk, including endocrine disruptors such as diethylstilbestrol, a drug previously given[books.google.com]
  • Hoarseness, in the setting of cough or coryza, suggests a viral etiology.[cdemcurriculum.com]
  • The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879. Definition (CSP) acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract; the etiologic agent is Neisseria gonorrhoeae.[fpnotebook.com]
  • Etiology Pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae ( N. gonorrhoeae, gonococcus ) Gram-negative, intracellular, aerobic, diplococci Transmission Risk factors Multiple sexual partners Low socioeconomic status Lack of barrier protection (e.g., condomless sex ) Men[amboss.com]

Epidemiology

  • Troisi is a cancer epidemiologist in the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, at the National Institutes of Health’s Cancer Institute and an associate member of the Norris Cotton Cancer Center at Dartmouth College..[books.google.com]
  • Epidemiology References: [1] [2] [3] [4] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.[amboss.com]
  • Epidemiology Gonococcal infection is the second most common bacterial disease in the United States that is classified as a reportable and notifiable infection.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • Introduction Classification Neisseria Gram-negative diplococci often intracellular within neutrophils Epidemiology incidence the second most common bacterial sexually-transmitted infection after Chlamydia location genital tract risk factors unprotected[medbullets.com]
  • From an epidemiologic point of view the disease is becoming more difficult to control because of the increasing number of asymptomatic male carriers. All forms of the disease previously responded to penicillin, but resistant strains have emerged.[dartmouth.edu]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Review Date: 5/19/2008 Reviewed By: Linda Vorvick, MD, Seattle Site Coordinator, Maternal & Child Health Lecturer, Pathophysiology, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine; Jatin M.[lutheranhealthcare.org]
  • Pathophysiology Gonococcal infections tend to be associated with the acute onset of symptoms and purulent mucosal drainage due to the organism's ability to recruit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]

Prevention

  • She is also active in several large studies of women's health, including the Nurses' Health Study, the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study, and the Women's Health Initiative.[books.google.com]
  • Avoidable - 0% Emergent - ED Care Needed - Not Preventable/Avoidable - 0% Primary diagnosis of injury 0% Primary diagnosis of mental health problems 0% Primary diagnosis of substance abuse 0% Primary diagnosis of Alcohol 0% Unclassified 100% Also called[medicbind.com]
  • Treatment of all sexual partners is essential to prevent re-infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).[lutheranhealthcare.org]
  • In most cases, you cannot prevent illness, germs and other microscopic beasties that have no problem hunting you down or hopping from person to person at a cocktail party. However, this is one sore throat that you absolutely can avoid.[healtharticles101.com]
  • This disease can cause serious complications, so it is recommended to use all possible means to prevent its development. The causative agent of the disease is the same, from which there is gonorrhea, so if any sexual contact must use a condom.[respiratory.vsebolezni.com]

References

Article

  1. Shim BS. Current Concepts in Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Korean Journal of Urology. 2011;52(9):589-597.
  2. Mayor MT, Roett MA, Uduhiri KA. Diagnosis and management of gonococcal infections. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(10):931-938.
  3. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Mandel, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Churchill Livingstone; 2015.
  4. Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2016.
  5. Ng L-K, Martin IE. The laboratory diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2005;16(1):15-25.
  6. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA. Medical Microbiology. Seventh edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders; 2013.

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Last updated: 2018-06-22 00:27