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Gram-Negative Pneumonia


Presentation

  • Abstract A clinical efficacy study of amikacin in the treatment of 15 adults with nonbacteremic, gram-negative bacillary pneumonia is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is impossible to present precise incidence figures, as these vary from centre to centre and are influenced by diagnostic sensitivity, patient populations, etc.[cambridge.org]
  • The present review has the aim to update the current knowledge about the etiology, classifi cation, antimicrobial resistance, diagnosis, and therapy in CAP due to GNB.[caijournal.com]
Fever
  • Essentially, all had new lung infiltrates as shown by chest radiography, leukocytosis, recent onset of fever, and increased volume of purulent secretions. Half had multilobar pulmonary infiltrates.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • I was worried what happened and fever was also there I consulted to doctor regarding fever, he checked blood, and it was typhoid and malaria I took antibiotic for 21 days with lots of pain in my chest my wife used to cut the medicine in four parts then[healthquestions.medhelp.org]
  • See your doctor promptly if you Have a high fever Have shaking chills Have a cough with phlegm that doesn't improve or gets worse Develop shortness of breath with normal daily activities Have chest pain when you breathe or cough Feel suddenly worse after[icdlist.com]
  • Your doctor might also suggest medication for pain and fever. Other things you can do to help yourself get better: Get lots of rest. Drink plenty of fluids (they’ll loosen up the gunk in your lungs so you can cough it out).[webmd.com]
  • This results in the fever, chills, and fatigue common in bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid leaked from surrounding blood vessels fill the alveoli and result in impaired oxygen transportation.[en.wikipedia.org]
Chills
  • See your doctor promptly if you Have a high fever Have shaking chills Have a cough with phlegm that doesn't improve or gets worse Develop shortness of breath with normal daily activities Have chest pain when you breathe or cough Feel suddenly worse after[icdlist.com]
  • This results in the fever, chills, and fatigue common in bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid leaked from surrounding blood vessels fill the alveoli and result in impaired oxygen transportation.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Common symptoms are: High fever up to 105 F Coughing out greenish, yellow, or bloody mucus Chills that make you shake Feeling like you can’t catch your breath, especially when you move around a lot Feeling very tired Low appetite Sharp or stabby chest[webmd.com]
Rigor
  • Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia ) Dyspnea – shortness of breath Chest pain Shaking chills [2] Pneumococcal pneumonia can cause coughing up[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Symptoms and signs include malaise, fever, chills, rigor, cough, dyspnea, and chest pain.[merckmanuals.com]
Cough
  • See your doctor promptly if you Have a high fever Have shaking chills Have a cough with phlegm that doesn't improve or gets worse Develop shortness of breath with normal daily activities Have chest pain when you breathe or cough Feel suddenly worse after[icdlist.com]
  • Drink plenty of fluids (they’ll loosen up the gunk in your lungs so you can cough it out). Use a humidifier or take a warm bath (more gunk-loosening). Don’t smoke. Stay home until your fever goes down and you aren’t coughing anything out.[webmd.com]
  • Coughing is important because nonpulmonary sources of bleeding are not usually associated with hemoptysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia ) Dyspnea – shortness of breath Chest pain Shaking chills [2] Pneumococcal pneumonia can cause coughing up[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Cough Medications/Decongestants - may help you to be more comfortable if you are coughing a lot.[chemocare.com]
Dyspnea
  • Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia ) Dyspnea – shortness of breath Chest pain Shaking chills [2] Pneumococcal pneumonia can cause coughing up[en.wikipedia.org]
  • 1.0) 20 (1.5) 0.71 0.7 0.1 to 5.1 — e Clinical characteristics CRB-65 score, n (%) 0.93 0 42 (43.3) 592 (44.7) 1 Ref. 1–2 54 (55.7) 716 (54.0) 1.0 0.7 to 1.6 3–4 1 (1.0) 18 (1.4) 0.8 0.1 to 6.0 Severe CAP, n (%) 14 (14.4) 101 (7.6) 0.02 2.0 1.1 to 3.7 Dyspnea[academic.oup.com]
  • Symptoms and signs include malaise, fever, chills, rigor, cough, dyspnea, and chest pain.[merckmanuals.com]
  • These medications must be used very cautiously if you have severe dyspnea. Discuss the risks and benefits of taking this medication with your doctor or healthcare provider.[chemocare.com]
Productive Cough
  • cough, n (%) 77 (79.4) 948 (71.5) 0.10 1.5 0.9 to 2.5 Haemoptysis, n (%) 12 (13.5) 104 (8.2) 0.09 1.7 0.9 to 3.3 Headache, n (%) 21 (21.7) 169 (12.9) 0.01 1.9 1.2 to 3.2 Fever on admission, n (%) 42 (43.3) 459 (34.6) 0.08 1.4 0.9 to 2.2 Lab results Leucocyte[academic.oup.com]
  • The material brought up from the lungs after a productive cough constitutes the material desired.[lungindia.com]
  • It is important to note that nursing home patients with pneumonia are less likely to present with classic signs and symptoms of the typical pneumonia presentation, such as fever, chills, chest pain, and productive cough, but instead these individuals[emedicine.com]
Rales
  • […] hypothermia ( 35 C) Tachypnea ( 18 respirations/min) Use of accessory respiratory muscles Tachycardia ( 100 bpm) or bradycardia ( 60 bpm) Central cyanosis Altered mental status Physical findings may include the following: Adventitious breath sounds, such as rales[emedicine.com]
Tachypnea
  • […] sputum Klebsiella species pneumonia: Red currant-jelly sputum Anaerobic infections: Often produce foul-smelling or bad-tasting sputum Signs of bacterial pneumonia may include the following: Hyperthermia (fever, typically 38 C) [1] or hypothermia ( 35 C) Tachypnea[emedicine.com]
Vascular Disease
  • Hammar Springer Science & Business Media, ٢٩‏/٠٦‏/٢٠١٣ - 1656 من الصفحات The first edition of Pulmonary Pathology was dedicated to Vascular Diseases. Vasculitis is so complex as to con two giants in the field, Drs.[books.google.com]

Workup

  • Urine assays Sputum, serum, and/or urinary antigen tests Immune serologic tests Histologic examination Histologic inflammatory lung changes vary according to whether the patient has lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, or interstitial pneumonia. [2] See Workup[emedicine.com]
Pulmonary Infiltrate
  • Half had multilobar pulmonary infiltrates. Their mean age was 73 years, with none under age 50. Most had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, or both.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • . : Etiology and microbial patterns of pulmonary infiltrates in patients with orthotopic liver transplantation. Chest 2000, 117 ( 2 ):494–502. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 28.[link.springer.com]
  • Of 76 089 patients presenting to the medical emergency department of the hospital clinic during the study period, 719 had pulmonary infiltrates. We selected 559 (78%) of the 719 episodes for this analysis.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Indeed, pulmonary infiltrates on imaging in critically ill patients are common and can be due to non-infectious etiologies, including atelectasis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), congestive heart failure (CHF), pulmonary hemorrhages, and pulmonary[f1000research.com]
Normal Chest X-Ray
  • Of these, 912 (38.6%) patients were excluded: 9 were assigned a final diagnosis of upper respiratory infection, 228 a diagnosis of extrapulmonary or no infection and 675 had a normal chest X-ray and were diagnosed as presenting acute bronchitis by the[academic.oup.com]
Blood Culture Positive
  • Fungus: Candida spp. mecA vanA/vanB bla KPC 1 h (after blood culture positivity, 8–24 h) Nanosphere/Verigene Microarray (detects 15 different Gram-positive targets and 14 different Gram-negative targets (including nine resistance mechanisms) Blood Other[intechopen.com]
  • culture positive for an organism considered not to be a contaminant.[scielosp.org]
  • Blood culture collection before initial hospital antibiotics Pre-treatment blood cultures - positive results in 5-14% of patients hospitalized with CAP 32.[slideshare.net]
Pleural Rub
  • Signs: tachypnoea, bronchial breathing, crepitations, pleural rub, dullness with percussion.[patient.info]

Treatment

  • Abstract Beta-lactam antibiotics form the backbone of treatment for Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Community-acquired pneumonia due to gram-negative bacteria and pseudomonas aeruginosa incidence, risk and prognosis. J Am Med Asso. 2002;162(16):1849-58.[msjonline.org]
  • We determined the incidence of, prognosis of, and risk factors for CAP due to gram-negative bacteria (GNB), including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Overall prognosis is poor, due in part to comorbidities.[merckmanuals.com]
  • A multivariate analysis of risk and prognosis. Chest 1988, 93 :318–324. PubMed Google Scholar 26. Pennington JE: Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia in the immunocompromised host. Semin Respir Infect 1986, 1 :145–150. PubMed Google Scholar 27.[link.springer.com]
  • Community-acquired pneumonia due to Gram-negative bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa : incidence, risk, and prognosis. Arch Intern Med 2002 ; 162 ( 16 ): 1849 – 58. 3.[academic.oup.com]

Etiology

  • Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10coded.com]
  • Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in a population-based study: Link between etiology and patients characteristics, process-of-care, clinical evolution and outcomes. BMC Infect Dis 2012;12:134. 20.[caijournal.com]

Epidemiology

  • This article reviews the epidemiologic characteristics, pathogenesis, and current management issues of GNB pneumonia.[link.springer.com]
  • ., Ballot, D.E. and Perovich, O. (2005) Epidemiology of Neonatal Sspsis at Johannesburg Hospital.[scirp.org]
  • Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults: A population-based study. Eur Respir J 2000;15:757-63. 13. Laing R, Slater W, Coles C, Chambers S, Frampton C, Jackson R, et al.[caijournal.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • This most likely reflects an incomplete understanding of the complex pathophysiologic mechanism and thus invites examination of alternative mechanisms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia ) Dyspnea – shortness of breath Chest pain Shaking chills [2] Pneumococcal pneumonia can cause coughing up of blood, or hemoptysis, characteristically associated with "rusty" sputum [3] Pathophysiology[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Preventing pneumonia is always better than treating it. Vaccines are available to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia and the flu. Other preventive measures include washing your hands frequently and not smoking.[icdlist.com]
  • The currently available therapeutic interventions to prevent the disease process are of limited usefulness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Guidelines for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 1997, 46 :1–79. The most current guidelines on infection control measures to prevent nosocomial pneumonia. Google Scholar 15.[link.springer.com]
  • Surveillance, infection control, and early detection by means of utilizing rapid diagnostics and other methodologies are important for early prevention of disease.[intechopen.com]
  • […] cardiac failure, etc.) should be among the preventive measures.[caijournal.com]

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